Did you know that Peru is among the 10 most diverse countries on Earth, that is, that it is a megadiverse country? Characterized by the presence of various ecoregions and types of ecosystems that allow it to host a rich and varied biodiversity, Peru is one of the most important megadiverse countries. Its biodiversity is reflected both in the gigantic number of species that inhabit it, as well as in the astonishing diversity of resources and diversity of ecosystems that it houses. These potentialities of biodiversity in Peru entail a whole series of challenges to achieve the sustainable protection of each and every one of its natural treasures.
Continue reading this AgroCorrn article to learn more surprising facts about biodiversity in Peru, its characteristics and importance .
- Biodiversity in Peru: characteristics, flora and fauna
- Importance of biodiversity in Peru
- Biodiversity risk factors in Peru
- How to conserve biodiversity in Peru
Biodiversity in Peru: characteristics, flora and fauna
The wild flora and fauna of Peru flood each corner of the country with life and color. Currently, Peru has 2 marine ecoregions and 9 well differentiated terrestrial ecoregions , according to the predominant biome in each of them. Thus, each of these ecoregions has a specific wild flora and fauna, which are adapted to live in a specific ecoregion instead of in another. Let’s see some examples of the flora and fauna of the ecoregions of Peru to better understand its wonderful biodiversity. In addition, in some of these examples you will find links to EcologiaVerde articles that will help you expand this information.
- Cold sea of the Peruvian current: phytoplankton of the genus Endophyton – blue whale ( Balaenoptera musculus ).
- Tropical sea: red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle ) – frigate bird ( Fregata magnificens ).
- Coastal desert: air carnation ( Tillandsia latifolia ) – shoreline jergon snake (genus Bothrops).
- Equatorial dry forest: carob ( Prosopis pallida ) – red deer ( Mazama rufina ).
- Pacific tropical forest: American cedar ( Cedrela odorata ) – Pacific howler monkey ( Allouata palliata ).
- Steppe mountains: myth or Andean papaya ( Carica candicans ) – giant armadillo ( Priodontes maximus ).
- Puna: yareta ( Azorella compacta ) – Andean condor ( Vultur gryphus ).
- Desert: Desert rosemary ( Diplostephium rosmarinifolium ) – giant picaflor ( Patagona gigas ).
- Yungas: lobster claw plant (genus Heliconia) – Peruvian cock-of-the-rock ( Rupícola peruvianus ).
- Amazon: mahogany ( Swietenia macrophylla ) – jaguar ( Panthera onca ).
- Palm savanna: aguaje palm ( Mauritia flexuosa ) – emerald toucan (Aulacorhynchus prasinus ).
Importance of biodiversity in Peru
To get an idea of the great ecological importance represented by the gigantic and varied biodiversity of Peru , below we show you concrete figures of the number of wild species of animals and plants that exist in this beautiful country:
- Mammals: 460 species.
- Birds: 1,700 species.
- Reptiles: 365 species.
- Amphibians: 315 species.
- Freshwater fish: 1,064 species.
- Angiosperm Plants: 20,000 species.
Each and every one of these species of animals and plants play an important and characteristic role within the proper functioning of the ecosystem to which it belongs, both on a small and large scale. For this reason, knowing, conserving and protecting the biodiversity of this megadiverse country are vitally important tasks, in which both local populations and governments and tourists must participate.
In the next sections we will see in detail the different sources of risk to which the current biodiversity of Peru is exposed, as well as many of the main actions that must be carried out to protect said biodiversity.
Biodiversity risk factors in Peru
As we can well imagine, the main factors that put animals and plants at risk in Peru are due to the irresponsible action of human beings. These actions include:
- Deforestation and uncontrolled logging .
- Creation of monocultures and industrial agriculture with the consequent loss of wild flora and fauna.
- Pollution and destruction of natural habitats.
- Poaching and overfishing. In these links you will find useful information on the Causes and consequences of poaching and on the Overexploitation of natural resources, its causes and consequences , such as overfishing or invasive mining operations.
- Industries and mining linked to invasive and seriously damaging extraction of natural resources.
- Overpopulation and excessive growth of cities, thus dividing the natural habitat of species of wild flora and fauna.
Along with these anthropic activities that year after year put the survival of thousands of animals and plants in Peru at risk, various natural phenomena also act by breaking the natural balance of the ecosystems in which they live. Among these natural agents that put the biodiversity of Peru at risk, the following stand out:
- El Niño and La Niña phenomena.
How to conserve biodiversity in Peru
When it comes to combating the different factors that put Peru’s biodiversity at risk , it is important to become aware of the conservation of said biodiversity and to encourage the creation of preventive measures.
Both to face those factors of anthropic and natural origin, on the one hand, it will be important to have a record of the number and characteristics of the species that inhabit the region that is being affected, as well as to have laws and projects that prevent damage and destroy the natural areas most vulnerable to risk factors. On the other hand, attending Environmental Education programs , as well as visiting Natural Reserves and Parks , will always be very helpful to get to know the flora and fauna that make Peru a rich and beautiful mega-diverse country.
To have more ideas on how to conserve biodiversity in Peru, we recommend these other AgroCorrn articles about The importance of biodiversity and its care and the Conservation and protection of the environment: importance and measures .
If you want to read more articles similar to Biodiversity in Peru: characteristics and importance , we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category .
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