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Flora and fauna of Mexico

Beyond the emblematic Mexican cacti, the answer to what the vegetation of Mexico is like, hides many surprises: gigantic trees, such as the magnolias that have inhabited the Earth for 125 million years, fruits and vegetables such as avocados and tomatoes, as well such as vines, ferns, and an immense variety of tropical plants. And it is that Mexico is considered the third most megadiverse country in the world, being the first in terms of reptile wealth, the second with respect to the diversity of mammals and the fourth according to the number of amphibians and plants such as those mentioned above.

If you want to know the flora and fauna of Mexico , which represents between 10% and 12% of the total biodiversity of the planet, continue reading this interesting article from AgroCorrn. In addition, you will not only be able to know their characteristics and names of several species, but you will also find several images of flora and fauna of Mexico.

You may also be interested in: Flora and fauna of Chiapas
  1. What is flora and fauna
  2. Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Mexico
  3. Flora of Mexico
  4. Fauna of Mexico
  5. Animals in danger of extinction in Mexico

What is flora and fauna

Within the biodiversity that characterizes an ecosystem or specific region of the planet, its flora and fauna play a very important role. While flora refers to the set of plant species in the ecosystem or region, fauna refers to the set of animals in the ecosystem or region, both vertebrates and invertebrates.

Thus, flora and fauna are very important ecological indicators when it comes to characterizing and understanding ecosystems, as they are conditioned by the climatic characteristics of the area and by the evolution of species that has occurred throughout history in every area of ​​the planet.

Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Mexico

In this section we will briefly see some of the most outstanding characteristics of the flora and fauna of Mexico , to learn more about the surprising nature of the Central American country:

  • The distribution of the flora and fauna of Mexico by regions corresponds to the presence of different ecosystems, such as: humid forests, dry forests, deserts, forests, bushes, grasslands and marine regions.
  • Within the plant species there are both aquatic and terrestrial plants, with a great variety of species of timber and non-timber forest interest.
  • The fauna of Mexico stands out for its surprising variety, both of invertebrates that flood the jungles with life, and of large terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, many of them endemic to the country, such as the vaquita porpoise.

Flora of Mexico

Once we have seen the general characteristics, we will talk about what the flora of Mexico is. Although there is currently no complete inventory of the flora of Mexico, estimates suggest that there are between 18,000 and 30,000 plant species in Mexico . Let’s see some of them in this section:

Yoloxochitl ( Mexican Magnolia)

Among the typical vegetation of Mexico, the imposing magnolias stand out, which have inhabited Central America for 125 million years. Specifically, the Yoloxochitl, is very famous in the country, since, in Moctezuma’s time, it was one of the most characteristic ornamental trees, used both for its appearance and for its aromatic and healing properties.

Bishop’s weed ( Mammillaria spp. )

It is one of the best known Mexican plants or rather, we can say that the Mammillaria genus is without a doubt one of the most prominent and abundant, within the great variety of Mexican cacti. They are characterized by their slow but long-lived growth, as well as by inhabiting the most arid and extensive regions of northern and central Mexico.

Corn ( Zea mays )

Cereals are some of the most cultivated vegetables in Mexico, among which corn stands out . Widely used in traditional Mexican cuisine, the various varieties of corn are consumed for their nutritional values, being currently considered the cereal with the highest production worldwide.

More flora from Mexico

  • Cactus chandelier ( Stenocereus spp. ).
  • Whip flower ( Aporocactus spp. ).
  • Old man cactus ( Cephalocereus spp. ).
  • White oak ( Quercus arizonica) .
  • Common juniper ( Juniperus communis ).
  • Guava (family Myrtaceae).
  • Navel of Venus ( Umbilicus rupestris ).
  • Juárez Oyamel ( Abies hickelii ).
  • Jalisco pine ( Pinus jaliscana ).
  • Weeping stone pine ( Pinus pinceana ).
  • Guadalupe palm ( Brahea edulis ).
  • Evergreens ( Echeverria spp.) .
  • Tehuantepec soybeans ( Beaucarnea stricta ).

Fauna of Mexico

Do you want to learn more about some of the most amazing animals in Mexico ? Continue reading this section to discover them in detail:

Monarch butterfly

Commonly known as the monarch butterfly, the Danaus plexippus species is undoubtedly one of the star invertebrates of Mexico. Their amazing migrations from the United States and Canada to Mexico each year, and their colorful orange wings, draw the attention of millions of people who visit the amazing Biosphere Reserve “Monarch Butterfly Sanctuary” for a closer look.

We recommend this other article on Why the monarch butterfly is in danger of extinction .


The emblematic quetzal ( Pharomacrus mocinno ), is one of the most majestic and revered birds in Mexico, as well as in other Central American countries. Despite the admiration shown by local Mexican populations and tribes towards this colorful bird, today there are many threats that place the quetzal in danger of extinction.

Learn more about one of the most amazing Mexican animals by reading this other article about Why the quetzal is in danger of extinction in Mexico .


Although they are quite unknown in Eurasia, tapirs (family Tapiridiae) are one of the most important mammals of the American fauna. Specifically, the Central American or Northern tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) is one of the typical animals of Mexico and, more specifically, they are large herbivores that inhabit the jungles of southern Mexico, reaching 2 meters in length and up to 300 kilograms in weight. .

Here you can find out why the tapir is in danger of extinction .

More fauna of Mexico

  • Royal eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) .
  • Canyon Crab ( Pseudothelphusa dugesi ).
  • Tarantula from the Federal District ( Hemirrhagus chilango ).
  • Charal de Alchichica ( Poblana Alchichica ).
  • Sardinilla yucateca ( Fundulus persimilis ).
  • Cecilia oaxagueña (Dermophis oaxacae).
  • Western Sierra Madre Frog ( Lithobates sierramadrensis ).
  • Salamadra de la Sierra de Juárez ( Cryptotriton adelos ).
  • Great Crested Toad ( Bufo cristatus ) .
  • Chara enana (Cyanolyca nana).
  • Tecolote tamaulipeco (Glaucidium sanchezi).
  • Trogón orejón (Euptilotis neoxenus).
  • Mountain Sparrow ( Xenospiza baileyi ).
  • Mexican spiny iguana ( Ctenosaura pectinata ).
  • Mountain Nauyaca ( Cerophidion barbouri ).
  • Coralillo del Balsas ( Micrurus laticollaris ).
  • Four swamp turtle ( Terrapene coahuila ).
  • Mexican pygmy rattlesnake ( Crotalus ravus ).
  • Cozumel raccoon ( Procyon pigmaeus ).
  • Banana bat ( Musonycteris harrisoni).
  • Vaquita marina (Phocoena sinus).
  • Zorrillo pigmeo ( Spilogale pymaea ).

Animals in danger of extinction in Mexico

Next, we will see a list of many of the main species of animals that are currently in danger of extinction in Mexico , according to the Red List of threatened species of the IUCN of Mexico:

  • Mexican axolotl .
  • Amazon or yellow-headed parrot.
  • Imperial Woodpecker or Cuauhtotomomi.
  • Bush rabbit from Isla San José.
  • Warrior flirt.
  • Bunny of the volcanoes or teporingo.
  • Red macaw .
  • Jaguar.
  • Mexican gray wolf .
  • West Indian manatee .
  • Transvolcanic mask.
  • Mapache pigmeo o de Cozumel.
  • Shrew of the Tuxtlas.
  • Ocelote.
  • Black bear.
  • Townsend parcel.
  • Picote tequila.
  • Greater nosy frog.
  • Quetzal.
  • Central American tapir.
  • Silly Tortuga the Caguama.
  • Pocket tortoise or Mexican tortoise.
  • Tuza de Xuchil o lanuda.
  • Vaquita marina .

If you want to know more, here you can discover 25 animals in danger of extinction in Mexico .

If you want to read more articles similar to Flora and fauna of Mexico , we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category .

Maria Anderson

Hello, I am a blogger specialized in environmental, health and scientific dissemination issues in general. The best way to define myself as a blogger is by reading my texts, so I encourage you to do so. Above all, if you are interested in staying up to date and reflecting on these issues, both on a practical and informative level.

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