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What is a native or autochthonous species

The various native species play a fundamental role in maintaining the richness and balance of ecosystems in any corner of the world. For this reason, it is vitally important to ensure that all inhabitants have an adequate knowledge of the fauna and flora of the place, as well as environmental measures and strategies to favor the protection and conservation of native forests and other ecosystems that are home to the natural wealth of the territories in which we live.

We probably know the fauna and flora that surround us much better than we think, but sometimes we would not know how to differentiate between those native and autochthonous species of our region from those other species of plants and animals that were introduced by human action and that today they coexist and reproduce, making an unnatural territory for them, a perfect setting for their excessive growth and invasion.

Continue reading this interesting AgroCorrn article in which you will learn what a native or autochthonous species is .

You may also be interested in: Endemic species: definition and examples
Index
  1. What is a native or autochthonous species – definition
  2. Difference between native and exotic species
  3. Difference between autochthonous or native and endemic species
  4. Examples of native or autochthonous species – lists of animals by countries

What is a native or autochthonous species – definition

The native or native species are those species of animals, plants or any other living organism, it is living beings, whose natural origin corresponds to a given territory . This territory does not have to correspond directly to the geographical limits established for countries and continents, but rather, its territorial limits are marked by specific climatic conditions and a specific ecosystem.

Each and every one of the native species contributes great richness and importance to the correct functioning of an ecosystem, since its correct functioning will depend on an optimal abundance and stability of these species, as well as on positive interspecific relationships with the other native species of the region.

However, when new species arrive that have been introduced by man, this balance can be seriously jeopardized, and native species will be the main victims. Let’s see in the next section what name and characteristics correspond to these species introduced into an ecosystem.

Difference between native and exotic species

Exotic species are characterized by having been transported and introduced into new territory in an unnatural way , that is, introduced by humans. Various events throughout history have allowed these exotic species (both animals and plants) to have been introduced by humans in new territories, colonizing them and being very damaging to the ecosystems in which they are introduced, in most of the countries. cases.

Within the exotic species, occasional exotic species are distinguished (they appear occasionally in certain territories and do not leave offspring), from naturalized exotic species , those that remain for a long time in new territory and produce offspring, becoming invasive species, characterized by a uncontrolled growth of their populations, the modification of the previous balance and characteristics of the environment and consequently producing numerous environmental problems.

Among these invasive exotic species that arrive as pets and that escape or are intentionally released in natural environments and thus displace the populations of native species, the current case of the Argentine parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ) stands out, which, in numerous Spanish cities are causing an imbalance in the native populations of house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) and Turkish turtle doves ( Streptopelia decaocto ).

Learn more about the Introduction of exotic species, its causes and consequences in this other article.

Difference between autochthonous or native and endemic species

Another of the most used terms to describe the species of flora and fauna that we can find inhabiting a certain territory is the “endemic” species. The endemic species are those that grow and reproduce only and exclusively in a given territory. Normally, endemic species are in turn considered native or autochthonous species of a certain place, however, a native or autochthonous species does not have to be an endemic species, as long as its geographical distribution is not limited to a territory exclusively.

You can learn more about endemic species in this AgroCorrn post on Endemic Species: definition and examples .

For example, the famous Iberian lynx ( Lynx pardinus ), is considered an endemic species of the Iberian Peninsula (since it does not live anywhere else on the planet), and is also a native animal of the same region, as it finds its natural origin . On the other hand, the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ) is not endemic to the Iberian Peninsula, since it also lives in the mountains of other European countries, as well as in Alaska and Canada. However, it is a native or autochthonous species of the Iberian Peninsula, as this is its region of natural origin.

To see more clear cases, we recommend reading this other article on Examples of endemic species from Spain .

In the next section we will put more examples of native or autochthonous animals from different countries to continue understanding and better differentiating native species.

Examples of native or autochthonous species – lists of animals by countries

To finish, we show some lists of examples of autochthonous or native species according to zones corresponding to countries.

Native or autochthonous species of Spain

Native or autochthonous species of Mexico

Native or autochthonous species of Peru

  • Puma (Puma concolor)
  • Llamas ( Lama glama )
  • Guinea pigs ( Cavia porcellus )
  • Anaconda verde (Eunectes murinus)
  • Peruvian cock- of-the-rock ( Rupícola peruvianus )

Native or autochthonous species of Bolivia

  • Alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
  • Andean deer ( Hippocamelus bisulcus )
  • Chinchilla del Sajama ( Chinchillula sahamae )
  • Ñandú petiso (Rhea pennata)
  • Fish of the genus Orestias and Trichomycterus (Lake Titicaca)

Native or autochthonous species of Brazil

  • Amazon tapir ( Tapirus terresres )
  • Mute rattlesnake ( Lachesis muta )
  • Toucan Toucan ( Ramphastos Toco )
  • Zorzal colorado (Turdus rufiventris)
  • Salmon Pink Tarantula ( Lasiodora Parahybana )

Native or autochthonous species of Guatemala

If you want to read more articles similar to What is a native or autochthonous species , we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category .

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