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Araucarias or coniferous trees: types, names and characteristics

You have probably heard or read a mention of conifers or coniferous trees. Although non-botanists probably do not know them by this name, they are a whole genus of plants with more than 550 species, comprising exclusively trees and shrubs. Some of them are pines, cedars and junipers, among others.

If you want to learn more about araucarias or coniferous trees, their types, names and characteristics , then join us in this AgroCorrn article.

What are araucarias or coniferous trees and their characteristics

Conifers are a type of plant that is mainly characterized by producing seeds that develop inside a cone-shaped protection called strobilus. These strobili, commonly known as pineapples, show widely diverse sizes and maturation times, which can range from a few months to three years. Some of these seeds are so protected inside their strobili that they are able to withstand harsh conditions, such as extreme temperatures, both hot and cold, and severe droughts. These trees almost always show straight trunks and there is a great variety of sizes among their species. The famous sequoia is the largest species to date, with recorded heights above 100 meters.

They are especially dominant in the taigas , the boreal forests of the northern hemisphere, which cover most of the interior of Canada, Alaska, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Finland, and even much of Japan. In these other AgroCorrn posts we will talk about what the taiga is, its definition and characteristics, and about the boreal forests, their characteristics, flora and fauna .

They are a very ancient type of plants , which can be found on our planet for no less than 300 million years. Most, but not all, are trees and shrubs with needle-shaped, dark green, resin-covered leaves.

In the following sections we will know the types, names of various species and the use of conifers in gardening and their basic care.

Types of araucarias or coniferous trees

The conifers or araucarias according to the botanical classification can be divided into several orders:

Araucariales

The Araucariales comprise two families, the Araucariaceae and the Podocarpaceae . The former are trees of great longevity, with high amounts of resin and a conical crown, with erect cones and large seeds. The Podocarpaceae have trees of heights of up to 60 meters and also some shrubs, both with very simplified female strobili.

Cupressales

Cupressales encompass the Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Sciadopityaceae families . Cupressaceae conifers are dioecious or monoecious trees and shrubs, with woody strobili and bract bracts. Texaceae are dioecious shrubs and trees, with strong, broad trunks and fully horizontal branches, without conduits for resin. Its seeds are spread thanks to the birds, which they attract with a fleshy aril of showy color. Lastly, the Sciadopityaceae has a single species unique to Japan, which is currently considered a living fossil.

Pinales

Finally, among the Pinales, the Pinaceae family stands out above all , usually known as pines. They are trees with resin channels and needle-like leaves, with notably woody female cones. They are the most representative and well-known conifers.

Names of araucarias or coniferous trees

These are the names of some of the main species of coniferous, coniferous or araucaria trees :

  • Sequoia sempervirens or redwood.
  • Pinus sylvestris or Scots pine.
  • Pinus aristata or Colorado pine.
  • Pinus cembroides, pinion tree or pinyon tree.
  • Abies koreana or Korean fir.
  • Juniperus virginiana or Virginia juniper.
  • Juniperus chinensis or Chinese juniper.
  • Thujopsis dolabrata or hiba.
  • Chamaecyparis lawsoniana or Oregon cedar.
  • Chamaecyparis obtusa or false hinoki cypress.
  • Thuja orientalis or eastern tuya.
  • Taxus cuspidata or Japanese yew.
  • Podocarpus nivalis or mountain totara.
  • Cryptomeria japonica or Japanese cedar.
  • Cedrus deodara or Indian cedar.
  • Cupressus macrocarpa or Monterey cypress.
  • Cedrus atlantica , bluish cedar, Atlas cedar, silver cedar, or Atlantic cedar.
  • Juniperus oxycedrus , the red juniper or Juniper of the Miera.
  • Monkey puzzle tree , to tree of life, pehuén, araucano pine, araucaria, pine or pine patagónico arms .

To learn more about coniferous or araucaria trees, we recommend reading this other AgroCorrn article about coniferous forests: characteristics, flora and fauna .

Araucarias, conifers or coniferous trees in gardening – care

They tend to be very hardy species. Due to this and how valued they are for their aesthetic forms, they are very popular in gardening. In addition, some species of dwarf conifers, such as the dwarf pine or Pinus pumila , can grow in quite tight spaces. Follow these tips for gardening coniferous shrub and tree care .

  • In their care, it is important to know how to water conifers . It is in spring when they need a greater contribution of water, making a lesser amount necessary when summer arrives.
  • It is advisable to fertilize them periodically so that they develop as well as possible: we place special emphasis on the advisability of organic and ecological fertilizers , such as worm castings or bokashi. Therefore, in these gardening guides we explain how to easily prepare them at home: How to make worm humus and Bokashi or bocashi compost: what it is and how to do it .
  • Finally, conifers require some attention when it comes to pruning, especially in the field of gardening. It is necessary to control the size of the araucarias with pruning , if they are to keep the aesthetic balance.

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