Jalisco is one of the states of the Mexican Republic that bathe the waters of the Pacific. Its geographical arrangement and heterogeneity of the relief favor the diversity of climates, among which stand out: the warm, the temperate and the dry. Due to the great variety of biomes that it presents, we can find from beaches, mountains and forests to jungles, semi-desert areas and wetlands. With all this, it is possible to think that Jalisco has a great biodiversity. In fact, it is part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot or hotspot .
If you want to delve into the biocenosis of this Mexican state, keep reading this AgroCorrn article on Jalisco flora and fauna where you will discover which plant species are representative of Jalisco and you will also learn about some of Jalisco’s fauna species.
Characteristics of the flora and fauna of Jalisco
The state of Jalisco is home to a large number of species of fauna and at least 25% of the richness of the total flora of Mexico . This biodiversity, intrinsically related to the landscape, the characteristics of the relief and the climatic conditions, is more concentrated in the coastal areas, in forests and in jungles.
Next, some examples of flora and fauna of Jalisco are presented in order to know the important biological diversity that this state harbors.
Flora of Jalisco
The vegetation of Jalisco is different in each of the ecosystems. In general terms, throughout this Mexican state, coniferous and holm oak forests , as well as jungles , predominate . Although the grasslands in the northwestern part and scrublands in the Los Altos de Jalisco region also stand out. These environments, as explained later, characterize the type of plants in Jalisco . In fact, taking into account the climates of the area, the distribution of Jalisco’s ecosystems and their species vary, so that:
- In the warm climate we find lianas, mosses, orchids, cedars, lemon trees, coconut trees and banana trees. Also noteworthy are the tropical forests of ceiba, widely resistant to times of drought, and mahogany.
- In the temperate climate, the pines (including ocotes), firs, ferns and birches stand out. Also nanches, very important in forestry and ecology due to their rapid growth and adaptability to a wide variety of climatic conditions.
- In the semi-dry climate it is characterized in terms of flora by grasses, strawberry trees, copals -which have a great medicinal and religious tradition in the area-, wickers (from the willow family) and biznagas, such as the Jalisco biznaga ( Mammillaria jaliscana ), an endemic Mexican species of the Cactaceae family.
These are just some of the more than 7,000 species of vascular plants that exist in Jalisco. All of them can be classified into two large groups: angiosperms, plants that have flowers, and gymnosperms, plants devoid of flowers. On the one hand, angiosperms are the largest and most diverse group of plants in Jalisco. They predominate in the South Region and the South Coast. Among the flowering species, the following stand out: palm trees and cacti. On the other hand, among the flora species of Jalisco , gymnosperms have a majority distribution in the westernmost area, specifically in the Western Coast-Sierra. In this group, firs or oyameles of the genus Abies predominate, very abundant in high mountain areas
Jalisco is one of the 5 states of Mexico with the greatest biodiversity of fauna. Such is this that it is home to at least 50% of the country’s total bird species, 47% of the mammalian species and 15% of the reptiles in Mexico. Despite the ecological importance of this state, not all species have a good state of conservation and, as happens in other parts of the planet, in Jalisco biodiversity is also highly threatened.
Birds of Jalisco
This part of Mexico has a very rich birdlife, with many of the Mexican species being endemic . The Altos de Jalisco region stands out for its great diversity of birds, being possible to find specimens of: American kestrel ( Falco sparverius ), northern jacana ( Jacana spinosa ), common buzzard ( Coragyps atratus ), collared turtle dove ( Streptopelia decaocto ), pijuy tick ( Crotophaga sulcirostris ), collared duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ), raven ( Corvus cryptoleucus ), red cardinal ( Cardinalis cardinalis ), etc.
Mammals of Jalisco
Mammals are the group of animals in Jalisco most studied by researchers, also one of the most threatened. In the land mammal fauna of Jalisco, rodent species (Pacific gray squirrel or Sciurus colliaei ) and bats (such as bats) are the most abundant.
However, among the more than 173 species that this state harbors, it is also possible to find important Mexican terrestrial endemisms that do not belong to either of these two taxonomic orders, such as the pygmy skunk ( Spilogale pygmaea ) or the gray hare ( Lepus callotis ).
Aquatic animals of Jalisco
With regard to aquatic species, fish, cetaceans and amphibians stand out. On the one hand, freshwater fish are the most abundant aquatic vertebrates, which is why they are widely distributed in rivers and other bodies of water in the Lagunas, Valles and Ciénaga regions. The most significant species can be found in the Cienega region, specifically in Lake Chapala. It is the catfish ( Ictalurus dugesii ), of great importance and commercial pressure, whose conservation status is threatened.
On the other hand, frogs are the type of amphibian that has a greater distribution throughout the state of Jalisco. Among the most prominent species are: the leopard frog ( Lithobates megapoda ), the neovalcanica frog ( Lithobates neovolcanicus ) and the waterfall frog ( Lithobates pustulosus ). In addition to frogs, toads, salamanders and caecilians (which look like a worm) are very common, especially in regions with good water availability such as the South Coast, the Center, the Western Coast-Sierra, the Valleys and the Sierra de Amula.
In marine and coastal environments, cetaceans such as whales ( Balaenoptera edeni , Balaenoptera musculus and Megaptera novaeangliae ), dolphins ( Delphinus delphis , Feresa attenuata , Grampus griseus , Pseudorca crassidens ) and beaked whales ( Mesoplodon spp .) Stand out .
Now that you know what the flora and fauna of Jalisco is like, you may want to expand the information by knowing what the Flora and fauna of Mexico is like in general.
Endangered animals in Jalisco
Currently there are around 19 species of animals in danger of extinction in Jalisco , of which 8 are birds, 5 are mammals, 2 are fish and 4 are reptiles. Knowing these data, we want to highlight some aspects about the situation of animal species in this Mexican state.
- As we can see, birds and mammals are the most threatened groups of animals in Jalisco.
- Among the mammals in danger of extinction, the felines stand out, specifically the jaguar or Panthera onca , the ocelot or Leopardus pardalis (threatened by poaching and the degradation and destruction of their habitat) and the tigrillo or Leopardus wiedii .
- Also in danger of extinction are the long-tailed shrew from Guadalajara ( Sorex mediopua ) as a result of deforestation and the spider monkey ( Ateles geoffroyi ) due to illegal capture and hunting.
- Among the most threatened bird species we find the lesser grebe ( Tachybaptus dominicus ), the neovolcanic coluda-tailed quail ( Dendrortyx macroura ) which is a Mexican endemism, the white-tailed hawk ( Buteo albicaudatus ) and the goldfinch bugle ( Myadestes occidentalis ).
- It should also be noted that all cetaceans in Jalisco have some type of special protection.
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