The natural sciences are the sciences that comprise all the scientific disciplines dedicated to the study of nature, focusing mainly on physical aspects and excluding those related to the human being. For its development, application and studies, the natural sciences rely on logic, reasoning and the existing methodologies of the scientific method, including, when necessary, practical developments.
The aspects encompassed by the natural sciences are so broad that they can be divided into several categories depending on their scope of application and study, being able to distinguish various main branches which, in turn, are divided into other subcategories in order to guarantee understanding nature in all its areas. Do you want to know what they are? In AgroCorrn we tell you everything about what the natural sciences and their branches are .
Sciences of living beings
The main branch dedicated to the study of the origin, evolution, characteristics and properties (nutrition, morphology, reproduction, etc.) of living beings is biology. Thus, this science is responsible for describing the characteristics and behaviors of organisms individually, as a species, and as a whole, in relation to other species or living beings, in order to establish the general laws that define the principles of organic life.
Some of the subcategories into which biology is divided are:
- Cell biology : it focuses on the study of cells, their structure and functions, since they are the basic and primordial units that form living beings.
- Molecular biology : focuses on the methods and tools that cells use to carry out their functions, such as the synthesis of components or metabolic processes.
- Marine biology : it is dedicated to the study of life in marine ecosystems, flora, fauna, conservation, and other biological elements.
- Microbiology : specializes in the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular living beings (made up of a single cell) and of a very small size so they are not visible to the human eye and can only be observed through a microscope. Examples of these microorganisms are bacteria and viruses.
- Genetics : it is dedicated to the study of the genome, the information it contains and how it is transmitted from generation to generation.
- Botany : it is dedicated to the study of vegetables and those that although they are not vegetables, share characteristics with them such as algae, fungi and cyanobacteria.
- Zoology : specializes in the study of animals, comprising a wide range of species, from those with a simpler aspect such as marine sponges to more complex organisms such as mammals.
- Ecology : it is the branch of biology dedicated to the study of ecosystems, the interaction of living beings with each other and with their environment. In the following article you can see which are the branches of ecology .
Earth and space sciences
Within this field we find two of the main branches into which the natural sciences are divided, which are geology and astronomy .
The geology is the science that is studied composition, internal and surface structure of the globe and its dynamics and evolution over geologic time. Currently it is applied mainly for the study of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, although it is also important when determining possible natural disasters.
Like the rest of the sciences, it is divided into important research subcategories , among which we will highlight:
- Historical geology : studies the changes and transformations that have occurred on the planet from its origins to the present.
- Paleontology : study the biology of bygone eras through fossils.
- Mineralogy : is responsible for the study of the composition and categorization of minerals.
The astronomy , however, deals with the study of the universe, planets, satellites, stars, comets, dark matter and all celestial bodies and phenomena that take place outside the land border. Some of the branches in which this science is divided:
- Astronautics : study the navigation and trajectory of artificial objects sent into outer space.
- Planetary, solar and stellar astronomy : it is dedicated to the study of the birth, growth and evolution and end of the celestial bodies.
- Cosmology : this science studies the universe as a whole by analyzing its properties on a large scale and in most cases in a theoretical way.
Science of matter and energy
In this category are physics and chemistry.
The physical comprises the study of matter and Stroke or theoretical and experimentally in space and time. It is generally related to other sciences, depending on the nature of the elements as in the case of astrophysics, geophysics or biophysics.
The chemistry , however, studies atoms, and processing compounds and reactions that can occur between these. Chemistry is very broad so it is also divided into other branches such as:
- Analytical Chemistry : Identify and analyze the properties of chemical systems.
- Industrial chemistry : it owes its name to the fact that it is applied mainly in industry, studying those processes that can lead to large-scale productions, their profitability and environmental impact.
- Biochemistry : it is linked to biology for the study of chemical reactions that affect living beings. It has great importance in the agricultural and environmental world.
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