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Flora and fauna of Colombia

Colombia is one of the 19 countries in the world considered megadiverse thanks to its enormous biodiversity. Its geographical characteristics mean that the country’s territory has a large number of biomes and, in addition, its location makes it a point of passage in the migration of many species.

If you want to learn more about the biodiversity of Colombia , the second country in the world with the largest number of species, join us in this AgroCorrn article about the flora and fauna of Colombia , their characteristics, lists of species names and photos of them.

You may also be interested in: Flora and fauna of the Pacific Region
  1. Flora and fauna of Colombia: main characteristics
  2. Flora of Colombia – examples of species with photos
  3. Fauna of Colombia – examples of species with photos

Flora and fauna of Colombia: main characteristics

It is almost impossible to give general characteristics of flora or fauna of a place with a biodiversity like that of Colombia. With 9% of the national territory forming part of its System of Natural Parks, the country has 9 million hectares dedicated to the protection and development of natural life .

In a similar way it happens with their ecosystems: they are too varied and extensive to be able to include them in a few words. The country has more than 44% of the South American moors , but it also has jungles, plains and Caribbean savannas and a large number of forest types.

To mention an idea as a summary about the flora and fauna of Colombia , we can indicate that it is home to more than 40,000 species of plants, a very high number considering its size. In fact, if we look at the number of animal and plant species per hectare, Colombia ranks first in the world. It has more than 1,700 species of birds, 1,200 species of marine animals and 1,600 species of freshwater animals, in addition to more than 3,200 species of butterflies from 14 different families, and the incredible number of more than 250,000 species of coleopterans.

For you to expand the information, in this other AgroCorrn article we will talk about What is a megadiverse country and examples .

Flora of Colombia – examples of species with photos

As we have said, the enormous variety of Colombian vegetation makes it impossible to establish common characteristics or points, but there are some species that are worth knowing a little better.


Sundews, also called sundew, are a genus of carnivorous plants with almost 200 species . It is characterized by its elongated leaves, which secrete a liquid that acts as bait for insects, simulating morning dew. When these get closer, they stay stuck to the thick liquid, and when the plant notices this, it begins to secrete more liquid by bending towards it to wrap it. It is a species threatened by several factors, such as pollution and the destruction of its habitat.

In this other post you can meet 9 types of carnivorous plants .

Orchid: the flower of Colombia

The orchid is the National flower of Colombia , and it is one of the most common Colombian plants to see. The orchids of this country are considered one of the most beautiful in the world, with more than 4,000 species of this flower in its territory, more than 1,500 of which are endemic.

One of the most representative is the Cattleya trianae or May flower. These orchids produce large flowers of up to 20 cm, with very bright and striking colors, ranging from bright white to yellow and magenta.

Here you can discover 12 types of orchids .

Other plants and flowers of Colombia

  • Cocoteros
  • Mangroves
  • Palosanto
  • Mahogany
  • Quite
  • Cedar
  • Pino
  • Oak
  • Café
  • Cacao

Here you can see images of the flora of Colombia in the order mentioned.

Fauna of Colombia – examples of species with photos

Although we cannot list the enormous number of animal species in Colombia , it is worth mentioning some specific cases.

Condor of the Andes

You cannot talk about the animal species of Colombia without starting with its national bird, the Vultur gryphus , which even appears on its shield. This bird weighing up to 15 kg is undoubtedly one of the largest in the world among those with the ability to fly. Their open wings reach a wingspan of up to 3 meters, but even so their size is so great that they inhabit mountainous areas with many winds, where these can help them stay in the air. They are bald-headed condors, with black plumage except for white markings on the wings and near the neck.

They act as scavengers, and it is a threatened and endangered species in some regions. Here we talk more about why the condor is in danger of extinction .

Pink dolphin

The Inia geoffrensis is a curious type of river dolphin , which attracts attention for its characteristic pink skin tone. It is also called tonina, boto or Amazon dolphin . It is a very curious and social animal, and the most intelligent of the river dolphins. Its nose is long and tapered and its profile offers a characteristic bulging forehead. It is believed that their pink skin is due to wear and tear or to their scars, since the young are gray, and they become lighter as they grow until they reach that characteristic tone. The males attack each other with great ferocity, and it is that at the time of copulation, those with the most scars are the most attractive to females.

It is classified as an endangered endangered species due to the destruction that the Amazon basin suffers. Here we explain more about why pink dolphins are in danger of extinction .


The jaguar, with the scientific name Panthera onca , is the largest feline in all of America, being able to reach weights of almost 100 kg and lengths of about 2 meters. It is distributed in several areas of the Amazon and in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, among others, and is an endangered species due to the loss of its habitat, poaching and conflicts with local farmers and peasants. It is an agile and powerful super predator, with jaws that can pierce the skull of a crocodile and the shell of a tortoise, although it feeds on practically any prey it finds.

Learn more about the situation of this big cat here: Why the jaguar is in danger of extinction .

Other animals of Colombia

To end this article on the flora and fauna of Colombia , we show you a list of more Colombian animals and their photos.

  • Tapir
  • Puma
  • Anteater
  • Pecarí
  • Armadillo
  • Lazy
  • Hummingbird
  • Stork
  • Vulture
  • Tucán
  • Nymph cockatoo (introduced fauna)
  • Poisonous golden frog
  • Andean chameleon

At the end of this article you will see a video about animals in danger of extinction in Colombia .

If you want to read more articles similar to Flora and fauna of Colombia , we recommend that you enter our Biodiversity category .

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Hello, I am a blogger specialized in environmental, health and scientific dissemination issues in general. The best way to define myself as a blogger is by reading my texts, so I encourage you to do so. Above all, if you are interested in staying up to date and reflecting on these issues, both on a practical and informative level.

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