The protection and conservation of the environment is essential for the future of our planet. This is mainly due to the fact that all living things, including humans, depend on many ecosystem goods and services that nature provides us. Even so, it seems that there is a certain part of the world population that does not quite understand it and continues to act in a polluting and unsustainable way. That is why, in this AgroCorrn article, we will explain how important it is to conserve plant and animal biodiversity in the natural environment, in addition to explaining what are the main causes of its degradation and the consequences of not managing it properly. Do you want to know what is the importance of the conservation of flora and fauna ? Find out below!
What is biodiversity
Planet Earth is made up of a great variety of biological systems that provide us with a wide range of essential natural resources for the survival of any organism. These biological systems, also called ecosystems , are responsible for the great diversity of species, whether of animal or plant origin. In this way, the relationships that are established between the environment and the species that compose it are essential for the development and evolution of our entire world, both at a population and global level.
The term biodiversity is defined as the variability of living organisms that inhabit our planet , whether they are plants, fungi, animals or microorganisms. Therefore, it can reflect the biological diversity of living things that come from any ecological complex, be it at the species, community, population or ecosystem level.
But biodiversity is not only a concept that helps us define a group of different species, but also helps experts to assess the stability of the ecosystem and calculate the damage it can receive. This is due to the fact that any ecological system with a high biodiversity of species will be more resilient in the face of any adversity, such as pests or drastic population declines. That is, we can say that an ecosystem with greater species variability will suffer less damage and imbalance in the face of any misfortune, since if any species fluctuates or disappears, there will be others that can supply its ecological niche .
Even so, for there to be a certain balance or stability in the ecosystems of the natural environment, there must be a biodiversity of organisms proportional to the natural resources that nature offers. That means that each ecosystem will be regulated by the animal and plant species that make it up. In the following AgroCorrn article we will talk about the causes and consequences of the loss of biodiversity .
What is the importance of the conservation of flora and fauna
Importance of flora conservation
In any ecosystem on planet Earth, the presence of trees and plants is essential. As we already know, this is mainly due to its ability to transform carbon dioxide (CO2) into oxygen (O2) that other living things breathe. In addition, they have a great function in the structure and fertility of the soil , helping in its compaction, avoiding erosion and nourishing it with remains of organic matter that decomposes thanks to bacterial and fungal activity. It must also be appreciated that many trees and shrubs serve as shelter and sometimes even as a threat to many animals in situations of risk, especially in forests and plains with bushes.
Finally, and already directed to an economic interest of the human being, the flora has a great interest in the world of agriculture . We must take into account the agricultural exploitation of many of the natural resources that nature offers us, mainly fruits and vegetables, since they represent the daily dietof the majority of the population. There are also many exploitations of medicinal plants or those with beneficial properties for humans (garlic, chamomile, lavender, mint, thyme, ginger, etc.). The other exploitations related to trees and plants are aimed at the extraction of raw materials, such as wood, cork, latex, resins or vegetable fibers (cotton, hemp, flax, etc.), which later serve as construction materials, dyes, clothing and tools, among others.
Importance of wildlife conservation
When it comes to fauna, from the smallest microorganism to the largest animal, be it an elephant or a fin whale, it is really important for human survival and for the conservation of the environment. In the first place, each animal, insect or bird, has a function in nature, that is, an ecological function to maintain the balance of the food chain that has been established. These functions can be, for example, contribute to plant regenerationof the fields, an activity carried out by many herbivores such as cows, goats and sheep, just by grazing and feeding on grass and other plants. Another function is performed by many rodents and birds, which feed on fruits or seeds that, once they come into contact with the ground (either through defecations or by burying them) can germinate and colonize new territories.
The fact that the fauna is structured in different nutrition levels means that very close relationships are established between predator and prey , the trophic relationships of the ecosystems reach such a point that their population indices fluctuate depending on the neighboring communities. In this trophic chain, the human being is at the highest point, in such a way that it benefits by feeding on a lot of the existing fauna, depending on a great variety of species. That is why we must be very selective and rigorous when choosing which species we consume and we must also know in what state of conservation they are. In this way we can have a balanced and sustainable diet with nature.
Even so, it should be mentioned that the current exploitation that we are carrying out of the most consumed fauna, such as pigs, veal, fish or chicken, is unsustainablefor many reasons. In many of these cases, these living beings are in very small habitats, living in deplorable conditions and exploited in such a way that they only live to reproduce and feed humanity. This situation cannot be maintained for long, since the amount of animals that are consumed, the food that is provided and the amount of waste that they produce, are not managed properly. It is obvious that the consumption of meat and fish helps us a lot to have a balanced diet and that we do not lack the necessary nutrients, but we must regulate their intake because otherwise we will end them.
Consequences of the loss of fauna and flora
The loss of plant and animal species can cause many problems, not only for humans but for the entire planet and on many different levels.
The fact that species are lost will imply that the trophic chain is destabilized and that the populations directly related to the disappeared organism become unbalanced.
That is, if, for example, rabbit populations decrease drastically, as happened years ago with a disease called myxomatosis, wolf populations will also decrease because they will have lost their main source of food, and will have to find another living being to feed on. , a fact that could cause further imbalances in adjacent habitats. Apart from the decrease in wolves, another effect would be the excess growth of those plant species that the rabbit populations feed on, which could create competition with other plant species and also unbalance that link in the trophic chain.
Likewise, with these highly variable fluctuations of organisms within a food chain, it would not be surprising that there were opportunistic species that benefited from the occasion and increased drastically, causing serious problems and even pests or mass infestations.
Apart from the great imbalance that would occur between plant and animal communities, we must also take into account that inert beings such as soil, air or water quality are also closely linked to the fauna and flora that surround us. Plants and trees play a very important role in the conservation of these parameters, since if, for example, we cut excessively a wooded area, and the soil is directly exposed to the elements, it will suffer erosion and runoff problems.
It is for these reasons, and for many more that our planet suffers daily, that we must be extremely careful with the fauna and flora that surrounds us, in order to maintain biodiversity and the balance that nature has.
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