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What is geology and its branches

Geology is the science that deals with the study of the Earth from the point of view of its structure and composition. It is a science that serves many others, since the information it offers can be used both in disciplines such as biology or chemistry, even others such as architecture or the construction of communication and transport routes, for which has many more applications than it may seem at first.

If you want to delve a little more into what geology and its branches are , keep reading AgroCorrn and we will tell you about it.

You may also be interested in: Branches of geography and what each one studies

What is geology

Geology is the science that studies the structure and composition of the planet . Its name derives from the Greek ” geo ” (Earth) and ” logos ” (knowledge).

It is a science that, although it will always be focused on the study of the Earth, it will have many different branches. This is because, depending on the object of the study in which the geologist specializes, diverse and quite varied specialties may be found within geology itself, which would be the mother science from which the rest of the branches would emerge.

Branches of Geology: Complete List

According to most Universities that teach geology, up to 21 different branches within geology can be distinguished . In alphabetical order, they would correspond to the following:

  • Crystallography
  • Speleology
  • Stratigraphy
  • Petroleum geology
  • Economic geology
  • Structural geology
  • Gemology
  • Historical geology
  • Planetary geology
  • Regional geology
  • Geomorphology
  • Geochemistry
  • Geophysics
  • Hydrogeology
  • Mineralogy
  • Paleontology
  • Petrology
  • Sedimentology
  • Seismology
  • Tectonics
  • Volcanology

What branches of geology study

Now we explain what is the field of study of each of the branches of geology , that is, what is studied in them:

  • Crystallography: this is the part of geology that deals with the study of crystals. Crystals are minerals that are characterized by having an orderly shape based on a pattern. In this way, they are distinguished from other rocks or objects associated with geology.
  • Speleology: it is the part of geology that deals with the study of caves and natural cavities formed on the planet. In this sense, his study focuses both on the documentation of these cavities, and on the study of the causes and forms that gave rise to their formation.
  • Stratigraphy: in this case, we are dealing with the branch of geology that deals with the study of stratified rocks. That is, those rocks or sediments that have formed giving rise to various records or levels, which form the so-called stratum. His study focuses on both the cartography and the interpretation of the strata.
  • Petroleum geology: it is the branch of geology that deals with the study of the terrain in order to find oil and natural gas that can be used and exploited by humans.
  • Economic geology: in this case, the study of the terrain is concerned with finding valuable or useful mineral deposits for humans. They can range from iron deposits to more noble metal deposits, such as gold and silver.
  • Structural geology: it would be the branch of geology that would deal with the study of the earth’s crust and the structure that it has taken as a consequence of the movements of the tectonic plates.
  • Gemology: in this case, we would be facing the geological discipline that deals with the identification and cataloging of gems or so-called precious stones. Some of the best known would be emeralds, sapphires, rubies or diamonds.
  • Historical geology: it is the branch of geology that studies the changes and transformations that have taken place on the planet from its formation to the present.
  • Planetary geology: it is one of the newest branches of geology. It deals with the study of the structure and composition of the celestial bodies. That is, it consists of the application of geological knowledge to other worlds, such as other planets, natural satellites or asteroids.
  • Regional geology: this branch of geology studies the earth’s crust in each specific region. In this way, he applies the knowledge of geology to continents, geographical or orographic units, as well as to specific regions among many other typologies.
  • Geomorphology: it is the branch of geology that studies the relief of the planet’s surface, both land and marine or underwater relief.
  • Geochemistry: consists of the branch of geology that studies the terrain and composition of the Earth from a chemical perspective. In this sense, it studies both the chemical composition of the areas studied and the movements that occur of the various chemical elements present in a given area.
  • Geophysics: it is the sister of geochemistry. In this case, the geological study is carried out focusing on the physical elements that modify or preserve the composition and structure of the land.
  • Hydrogeology: this is the branch of geology that studies the composition, movements and structure of groundwater , as well as its best possible use and conservation.
  • Mineralogy: in this case, we are facing the discipline of geology that studies the composition and cataloging of minerals in all their forms and presentations in nature.
  • Paleontology: it is the branch of geology that studies the biology of the past from fossils.
  • Petrology: it is the branch of geology that studies rocks and their characteristics.
  • Sedimentology: this is the branch of geology that studies the formation of sediments, as well as the transport and processes that are carried out to carry out said transport of the materials that make up the sediments.
  • Seismology: consists of the branch of geology in charge of studying earthquakes. Likewise, it also deals with the study of tidal waves and subsequent tsunamis , since these are originally produced by an earthquake located in aquatic areas.
  • Tectonics: it is the branch of geology that studies the formation, composition and movement of tectonic plates, as well as the characteristics of the faults where the various tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s surface collide.
  • Volcanology: it is the branch that deals with the study of volcanoes, both their formation and their behavior. It also deals with the study of magma and lava, as well as any pyroclastic element related to the activity of volcanoes.
Maria Anderson

Hello, I am a blogger specialized in environmental, health and scientific dissemination issues in general. The best way to define myself as a blogger is by reading my texts, so I encourage you to do so. Above all, if you are interested in staying up to date and reflecting on these issues, both on a practical and informative level.

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