Water is one of the fundamental elements that allowed life to take place on Earth. Earth is also called the blue planet because more than three parts of the surface are covered with water, liquid water. But on Earth there is not only liquid water, we can also find it in a solid state such as ice or in the air in a gaseous state. In fact, the water on Earth is thought to have come from comets that collided with our planet and were made of ice. Next, in AgroCorrn we are going to explain what the physical states of water are for children .
What is water
Water is made up of two basic elements : hydrogen and oxygen. Each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atoms. Depending on the arrangement of the atoms in space and the bonds they have with other water molecules, it can be found in different states: solid, liquid or gas.
Naturally you can find water in its three different states. Depending on the ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure, water can be found in one form or another and also in different amounts and proportions. For example, in the polar and colder zones there is more ice and in temperate zones the water is in liquid form. Next, we are going to explain what the different states of water are.
The states of the water
The states of the water are as follows:
- Liquid : it is the state of water at room temperature, that is, between 0 and 100ºC . We can find liquid water in rivers, lakes and seas, rain and also what we consume in our homes.
- Solid : when water freezes it forms ice and this occurs at temperatures of 0ºC and below . In a natural way we can find ice in icebergs, mountains or forming hail. We can also get ice if we put liquid water in the freezer and also using different molds we can get ice in many different shapes.
- Water vapor : when the temperature rises to 100ºC or more, liquid water turns into gas and forms what we call water vapor. This happens when we put a pot of water to boil or it can also occur naturally as in hot springs or geysers.
Water status changes for children
Now that we know the different states in which water can be found, we are going to explain what are the processes that cause water to change from one state to another .
- Fusion : it is the change from solid state to liquid state. It occurs when the temperature is increased. The exact temperature at which the change of state from solid to liquid occurs is known as the melting point. Melting occurs, for example, when we melt an ice or naturally, when summer arrives and the peaks of the mountains stop having ice and snow.
- Solidification : it is the opposite process and it occurs when liquid water turns into a solid state, transforming into ice. It occurs when temperatures drop, such as when winter comes and the surface of high mountain lakes freezes.
- Evaporation : is the change of state from liquid to gaseous and occurs when the temperature rises. We only speak of evaporation when it occurs on the surface of the water, however, when it occurs in the entire volume of water it is called vaporization. The temperature at which the change from liquid to gas occurs is called the boiling point. Evaporation can occur naturally in large bodies of water such as the seas or it can also occur in living beings (for example, when we sweat) and in this case we speak of evapotranspiration.
- Condensation : it is the passage from gaseous water to liquid water. It occurs when water vapor cools rapidly and precipitates in liquid form. This phenomenon is what produces clouds, where the vapor from the evaporation of the sea surface rises to areas where the temperature is very low and is transformed into small drops of water that when they accumulate form clouds. The dew that appears on winter mornings is also produced in the same way.
- Sublimation : it is the change from solid to gaseous state, without going through the intermediate liquid state. It occurs especially at the poles or in very cold areas where the ice evaporates or volatilizes directly by the action of the Sun. This process also occurs in the air fresheners that we have at home, which are in a solid state inside the can and come out in the form of gas.
- Reverse sublimation or crystallization : as its name indicates, it is the opposite of the previous process, it is the passage from gas to solid without going through the liquid state. It occurs when the temperature of the environment is very low, such as on cold winter nights where frost or frost occurs.
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