The reproduction function is one of the three vital functions that all living things perform, along with the nutrition function and the relationship function. This is one of the stages that living organisms go through and refers to the survival of the species, that is, it is thanks to which the genes that define or characterize a species are perpetuated and through which the organisms form new individuals , either by sexual or asexual reproduction. To be able to carry out the function of reproduction, organisms have to be in the maturity stage, since this is the moment in which they have developed the apparatus and organs that intervene in the formation of new living beings.
Do you want to learn more about the function of reproduction in animals and plants and in their cells? Do you want to know what systems are involved in reproduction? Why is the playback function so important? To clear up these doubts, continue reading this AgroCorrn article about the reproduction function of living beings .
Cell reproduction function
The cell is the basic functional unit of living beings and you may have sometimes wondered how cells reproduce . Cell reproduction occurs when a cell divides to give rise to new ones, through mitosis or meiosis . With mitosis, which is the most common form of cell division in eukaryotes, the stem cell copies the genetic information completely and subsequently divides the cytoplasm in two, giving rise to two identical daughter cells. On the other hand, cells can also divide by meiosis. This process, somewhat more complex than the previous one, occurs when a diploid cell (with a double copy of its genetic material) divides twice to give rise to four haploid daughter cells (which have half the genetic material) compared to the mother cell. . In addition, in the first meiotic division there is crossover between homologous chromosomes, at which time the genetic material recombines.
Cell reproduction is important , since it allows the growth of multicellular organisms as well as the replacement of cells that have been damaged.
Reproduction function in plants
Plants reproduce to form new individuals and they do so through sexual or asexual reproduction, both types coexisting in most plants.
- As for the asexual reproduction of plants , only one individual is involved and no specialized cells or sexual gametes participate. One of the advantages of asexual reproduction is that it allows a rapid growth of the population, whose individuals share exactly the same genetic material, that is, they are clones of each other and therefore, there is no genetic variability. Asexual reproduction in plants occurs through mechanisms such as: sporulation (through spores, eg in ferns), vegetative multiplication by stolons (eg in strawberries), bulbs (eg in onions), rhizomes (eg in lilies) or tubers (eg in potatoes), cuttings (eg in ornamental plants), layers or grafts (eg in rose bushes). Here we talk more aboutAsexual reproduction of plants .
- On the other hand, sexual reproduction in plants occurs when two special germ cells (gametes) fuse to give a new individual with the genetic combination of both parents. Meet several of the Plants that reproduce sexually in this post.
Find out in more detail about the Reproduction of plants here. Also, do not miss this video from our channel about this issue of reproductive function in plants.
Reproduction function in animals
In animals, sexual and asexual reproduction can also occur.
- In sexual reproduction in animals, it occurs when haploid sex cells (ovules and sperm) unite to give rise to a diploid zygote. This new individual has a genetic mix of its parents, an advantage that benefits the evolution of the species as changes occur in the environment.
- Other more primitive animals reproduce asexually , which implies that, from the cells their own body, will give rise to a new individual. The mechanisms by which asexual reproduction occurs in animals can be: by budding (through the formation of buds), by excision (the individual divides into two) or fragmentation (the individual divides into several parts).
However, there are animals such as starfish that exhibit sexual and asexual reproduction. They reproduce asexually when they form a new individual from a part of their body, for example an arm and, sexually, because there are male and female individuals (even some hermaphrodites ) than by external fertilization (that which occurs in the marine environment when sperm and ovum meet) can give rise to a zygote that will become an adult after passing through the larval period (in the species that present it).
Systems involved in the reproduction function
In plants with seeds (spermatophytes or phanerogams) the flower is the structure where the organs involved in the function of reproduction are located. In turn, these can contain organs of one sex or both depending on whether they are unisexual or hermaphroditic. The sexual organs are the androecium and the gynoecium . On the one hand, the androecium is the male organ and is formed by the stamens inside which are the pollen sacs where the male gametes are located. On the other hand, the gynoecium is the female organ and is made up of the ovary, where the ovules are found that will be fertilized and will transform into a fruit inside which will house the seeds.
In animals, sexual reproduction occurs thanks to the existence of reproductive function apparatus or reproductive apparatus that are responsible for forming reproductive cells or gametes. In most animals, the apparatus involved in the function of reproduction consist of male gonads responsible for the formation of sperm and female gonads , which form ovules. Both would constitute the primary sexual organs. On the other hand, there may be other accessory structures such as the genital tract, uterus, vagina, copulatory organs or, as in the case of some invertebrates such as insects, seminal receptacles.
Now that you have learned all this about reproduction, we recommend expanding your knowledge about living things with these other posts:
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