To continue expanding your knowledge of basic botany, we have wanted to offer you this summary about what is phanerogams or characteristics of spermatophytes. In fact, by translating this last name by which this group of plants is also known, we can discover its vital importance. The word spermatophyte is literally translated as ” seed plants .” This comes from the union of two Greek words: sperma, which means seed, and phyton, which means plant. We can find very varied phanerogam plants, from terrestrial plants to marine plants, since seeds are extensive.
Next, we will answer key questions to understand well the ecological and crucial value of these plants and add a list of examples so that you can clearly identify them. Read on if you want to discover phanerogams characteristics and examples.
- What are Phanerogamic Plants
- Characteristics of phanerogamic plants
- Phanerogams examples.
What are Phanerogam plants?
Now, the question is what are spermatophytes? Within the group of phanerogamic plants, also known as spermatophytes or plants with seeds, two large groups of plants populate our planet: angiosperms and gymnosperms. We recommend you discover more about this type of plant with these other articles about what angiosperm plants, gymnosperm plants, and the Difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms. We will even find several species of ferns within this classification known as Pteridosperms. Many of the fern species belonging to this classification are found within the group of fossil plants. Hence many forget that they are part of the phanerogamic plants.
Another important fact to comment on is that certain varieties of phanerogamic plants have adapted to the aquatic environment. These grow in shallow areas of warm water oceans, as in the Mediterranean Sea. In fact, they are an essential source for many living species, from small organisms to other living beings, such as fish or man.
Regarding the reproduction of phanerogamic plants, we will find a first group capable of creating flowers for their reproduction in the case of angiosperms. In this way, the seed is the product of pollination. However, we also find plants within the phanerogams that reproduce asexually. The seed, an organ that characterizes spermatophyte or phanerogamic plants, is composed of three layers.
In the first one is the embryo, in the second, it is composed of tissues with nutritional properties that help the embryo to grow and develop during the first stage and, finally, in the third is the protective layer that is responsible for inducing the germination of the plant when the optimal conditions for its development are met. We recommend you learn more about The parts of the seed and their functions with this other post.
The importance of phanerogamic plants not only lies, as in most cases, in their ornamental value but also in being part of the progress of civilization. These are not only capable of giving us food, such as fruit or cereal, but they also produce energy and medicinal drinks, such as coffee or tea. Moreover, many of them produce materials with which wood and resins are produced and cotton and dyes, essential for the textile industry.
Characteristics of phanerogamic plants
These are the main characteristics of phanerogams :
- The main characteristic of spermatophytes is their ability to produce seeds. Seeds are the product of pollination: the union phase between the female and male cells.
- Phanerogamic plants are one of the most common plant groups on the planet. These are distributed throughout the earth, being able to adapt to very diverse climates.
- Do phanerogamic plants form flowers? The truth is that within the phanerogamic plants, we will find some capable of producing flowers, such as those belonging to the group of angiosperms. In the same way, there are also gymnosperms that, even without producing flowers, create elaborate support to protect the seed.
- Phanerogamic plants have chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. Therefore, all of them can carry out photosynthesis to convert sunlight into a source of energy to produce their own food.
- Most phanerogamic plants have highly developed vascular tissue. That is, they have both xylem and tracheids, as well as other secondary growth tissues.
Examples of phanerogams.
To finish, we mention several examples of phanerogamic plants :
- Abies alba or fir
- Acorus gramineus the grassy chorus
- Allium cepa or onion
- Antirrhinum majus the dragon’s mouth
- Buganvilla o bugambilia
- Cichorium endivia L. o endivia
- Chrysanthemum o crisantemo
- Cycadophyta or Cicada
- Cyclamen o ciclamen
- Cedrus deodara o cedro del Himalaya
- Dahlia or Dalia
- Dianthus caryophyllus o Clavel
- Erythronium or dog’s tooth
- Fritillaria imperialis or imperial crown
- Ginkgo biloba or gingko
- Helianthus annuus o girasol
- Hibiscus or hibiscus
- Chinese anise O anís estrellado
- Juniper O Enebro
- Juniperus phoenicea or Sabina Roma
- Pinus pinea or stone pine
- O noble bay laurel común
- Lactuca sativa L. or lettuce
- Lilium O Azucena
- Magnolia stellata or magnolia estrellada
- Musa x paradisiaca o platanero
- Nymphaea termarum or water lily
- Oryza sativa rice
- Piper nigrum L. or black pepper
- Persea Americana or avocado
- Sequoia sempervirens o secuoya
- Taxus baccata the tejo
- Zantedeschia aethiopica o cala
- Zea mays or corn
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