One of the characteristics of any living being that inhabits the planet is reproduction. This can be sexual (through gametes) or asexual. Sexual reproduction is typical of higher organisms, while asexual is typical of lower organisms, such as microorganisms . Plants and a few animals have the peculiarity of being able to use either of the two.
If you have come here because you wonder what asexual reproduction of plants is, continue reading this AgroCorrn article because you will find a summary about what asexual reproduction of plants is, its characteristics, types and examples .
- What is asexual reproduction of plants and its characteristics
- Types of asexual reproduction of plants
- Examples of plants with asexual reproduction
What is asexual reproduction of plants and its characteristics
What is and what does asexual reproduction of plants consist of ? And what are the characteristics of asexual reproduction in plants ?
Asexual or vegetative reproduction that occurs in some animals, plants and other organisms, consists of the detachment of a cell or parts of the body of an already developed individual and that through mitotic processes is capable of giving rise to another genetically equal organism. This type of reproduction can develop with a single parent and without sex cells or gametes involved in the process.
This type of reproduction is the only one possible within the simplest organisms, such as bacteria. In them there is a process of binary fission or cleavage in which a stem cell is fragmented into two or more cells. Within single-celled yeasts and fungi the process is called budding and a small bud is formed that grows in the body of the mother organism until it is detached. In some primitive multicellular animals, such as sponges or tunicates, division is also carried out by buds.
The cell division or mitosis that occurs in higher animals is very similar to the excision process, but it is not considered a mechanism of sexual reproduction. Among plants it is possible to observe both mechanisms of reproduction, sexual and asexual. Among higher plants, sexual reproduction is carried out by seeds , while there are various asexual reproduction mechanisms .
Types of asexual reproduction of plants
In plants, this type of multiplication can take place by various reproductive structures or methods. So what are the mechanisms of asexual reproduction in this case? These are the different types of asexual reproduction of plants :
- Stolons: along the surface of the soil, thin and elongated stems form that will form spaced roots and that, later, will give rise to a new individual. You can see them in the image below and here we tell you more about what are stolons and examples .
- Rhizomes: they are stems of indefinite growth that develop below or above the ground and give rise to adventitious roots, from which new plants will grow. Learn more in this other post about Rhizomes: definition and examples .
- Cuttings: they are portions or pieces of stems that originate a new individual. For this, the cuttings must be buried underground and can be treated with hormones.
- Grafting: consists of inserting a bud into a groove made in the stem of a rooted plant. It is something very typical in fruit trees and, therefore, in AgroCorrn we prepared this guide on How to make grafts of fruit trees .
- Leaves and roots: In some species there are leaves that can function in vegetative reproduction. In this case, the plants develop attached to the leaves, until they develop sufficiently and can be separated. They then fall to the ground, where they take root. This also happens with pieces of roots.
- Sporulation: the organism forms spores , which are small and easily dispersed, and when it finds favorable conditions it gives rise to the new individual. Sporulation is typical of ferns and mosses .
- Spread them: they are small buds that come from the thallus with the ability to spread. It is typical of bryophyte plants and ferns.
- Parthenogenesis and apomixis: the individual manages to give rise to seeds without fertilization of the ovum.
- Budding: it is a type of uneven division that consists in the formation of buds, bumps or prominences in the parent plant. These, when growing and developing, can separate from the main plant and be new individuals but equal to it.
By obtaining genetically identical plants , it is possible to generate new plants adapted to certain environments and it is a fast and efficient mechanism. For this reason, this type of reproduction is ideal for environments that are not very suitable for reproduction by seed.
Examples of plants with asexual reproduction
As we have already indicated before, there are asexual and sexual plants , depending on the type of reproduction they use. Some plants that reproduce asexually are:
- Kalanchoe: they are succulent-type plants and usually reproduce from seedlings or leftovers from their leaves. In fact, it is very easy to reproduce them. In these posts we show you +40 types of kalanchoe and the care of the kalanchoe plant .
- Tulips: they usually reproduce asexually using bulbs, which are fleshy stems underground that give rise to new plants. In this other article you can know 15 bulb plants and in this other How to care for potted tulips .
- Dandelions: they usually reproduce asexually by apomixis or spores.
- Cypress: they usually reproduce asexually through male apomixis (there are few cases), in which they give rise to diploid pollen grain that form an embryo when it reaches a female like of another cypress.
- Potato: The potato usually reproduces asexually by means of buried stems or tubers.
- Dahlia: it is a perennial plant close to the sunflower, which reproduces by means of tubers
- Brachiaria: it is a common plant in tropical areas and it reproduces by apomixis.
- Panicum: it is a plant from the Brachiaria family and also from tropical areas. It reproduces asexually by apomixis.
- Cenchrus: it is a herbaceous plant of temperate and tropical zones, which reproduces by apomixis.
- Green algae: they are a large group of marine algae that reproduce through spores that will give rise to identical individuals. Find out more about them in this other post about What are green algae, characteristics, types and examples .
- Sugar cane: it is a very popular plant since sugar is obtained from it. It is usually reproduced by planting pieces of a previous individual. Precisely its easy propagation allows its commercial exploitation.
- Onion: it is one of the plants with the greatest commercial and nutritional popularity, its cultivation occurs all over the world. One of the reasons is the easy reproduction of onions , by means of remnants of their roots.
- Malamadre or ribbons: a domestic crop plant that generates new individuals from its roots and branches. It is considered an invasive and perennial plant. Here we tell you how to take care of the tape plant .
- Gladioli: a genus that includes a large number of species, which develop different behaviors depending on the crop to which they are subjected. They can reproduce by budding.
After having known some examples of asexual reproduction of plants and several details about it, we encourage you to learn more by reading this other article about asexual reproduction: what it is, types and examples .
Also, if you are wondering how plants reproduce , take note of these other AgroCorrn articles specific to the Reproduction of plants and Plants that reproduce sexually . Also, here at the end you can watch a video about the reproduction of plants to learn much more.
If you want to read more articles similar to Asexual reproduction of plants: what it is, characteristics, types and examples , we recommend that you enter our Biology category .
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