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Types of aquatic biomes

By studying the different biomes that exist in nature, we can learn about the extensive and varied biodiversity characteristic of each region of the Earth. This is possible thanks to the fact that these biomes share very specific environmental characteristics, as well as the same climate, flora and fauna. At small or large scales, we can differentiate between different types of biomes, the aquatic ones being one of the largest and most widespread groups.

In this interesting AgroCorrn article you will learn about the types of aquatic biomes that exist, as well as examples and some of their most outstanding characteristics.

You may also be interested in: Types of marine biomes
  1. What is a biome
  2. Characteristics of aquatic biomes
  3. Types of aquatic biomes
  4. Inland water aquatic biomes
  5. Aquatic biomes of ocean waters

What is a biome

Biomes are all those sets of different ecosystems that are located in a specific biogeographic area of ​​the Earth.

The term biome comes from the Greek “bios” (life), since it includes and represents all species of living beings (animals, plants, fungi and microorganisms) that inhabit the ecosystems in its range. This area is always delimited by well-defined climatic, environmental and ecological characteristics. Thus, in nature, we can generally differentiate between terrestrial biomes and aquatic biomes , depending on the physical environment in which they are located, land or water, respectively. In the next sections of the article we will focus on the characteristics, types and examples of one of the most abundant groups of biomes on Earth: aquatic biomes.

Learn more about What are biomes , their types and examples with this other AgroCorrn post.

Characteristics of aquatic biomes

As its name suggests, the main characteristic of aquatic biomes is the presence of water in its area of ​​distribution. Whether freshwater or marine ecosystems make up the biome, the aquatic essence remains and represents the biome itself.

In this way, the other characteristics of the aquatic biomes will be related to said presence of water, thus counting on:

  • Aquatic flora and fauna.
  • Physical and chemical elements as well-defined components of the aquatic biome (salt concentration, pH, temperature, amount of light, etc.).
  • Areas of distribution of aquatic biomes restricted to the distribution of continental or oceanic waters of the planet.
  • Close relationship with terrestrial biomes in those aquatic biomes that are located in terrestrial-aquatic biogeographic interfaces, such as the case of coasts, mangroves and river mouths.

In addition to these general characteristics of aquatic biomes, each type of biome has its own characteristics that define and distinguish it from the others. Let’s look at some of those types of aquatic biomes that exist in nature and put some examples to get to know them more closely.

Types of aquatic biomes

When classifying the different types of aquatic biomes that we can find in nature, we can differentiate between those that have fresh or salt water , or differentiate them according to whether they are biomes of continental or oceanic waters.

This second classification is more complete and illustrative, since it allows us to better understand the aquatic biomes according to their geographical distribution and associated characteristics. Let us know, based on this classification, the types of aquatic biomes that exist:

Inland water aquatic biomes

  • Lakes, lagoons and wetlands
  • Reservoirs and swamps
  • Rivers, streams and streams
  • Polar waters and glaciers
  • Chotts or salty lakes of semi-arid regions

Aquatic biomes of ocean waters

  • Coastal biomes
  • Open and deep sea biomes
  • Temperate offshore platforms
  • Oceanic islands
  • Tropical coral reefs

Inland water aquatic biomes

Each and every one of these aquatic biomes is found in continental regions of the planet, forming part of the so-called continental surface waters .

Lakes, lagoons and wetlands

They can contain either fresh water or, on the contrary, salt water, characterized in both cases by being water bodies with a closed distribution and without apparent movement of water (considered, therefore, lentic ecosystems).

In these other articles we explain the Difference between lake and lagoon and we talk about Wetlands: what they are, types and characteristics .

Reservoirs and swamps

They share the same characteristics as the previous examples, except for being artificial biomes, that is, created by humans. In order to permanently or seasonally retain large masses of continental water, reservoirs and swamps are distributed throughout the planet, wherever anthropic action builds them to supply their water needs.

Rivers, streams and streams

Unlike the aquatic biomes of inland waters that we have seen so far, rivers, streams and streams are characterized by the marked movement of their waters, generally in one direction only (they are therefore lotic ecosystems).

Polar waters and glaciers

These aquatic biomes are located in the polar and coldest regions of the planet, in which the great masses of water freeze due to the low temperatures of the winter months. Later, with the arrival of spring and the increase in temperatures, the polar and glacial waters suffer thawing and discharge their waters to rivers or other types of biomes near their location.

Learn more about What are glaciers and about the Polar Ecosystem, its characteristics, fauna and flora with these other articles.

Chotts or salty lakes of semi-arid regions

These peculiar and characteristic aquatic biomes represent saline lakes of different sizes that are formed from rainwater that remains stagnant during the rainiest months in the semi-arid regions of the planet. Subsequently, these waters disappear rapidly with the increase in temperatures and the arrival of droughts, then extensive layers of salt appear in the place where the water basin had formed.

Aquatic biomes of ocean waters

The surprising and extensive aquatic biomes of oceanic waters are distributed within the limits of the 5 great oceans of the planet (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Antarctic and Arctic). In them, we can differentiate the following biomes:

Coastal biomes

Characterized by being located in the coastal regions, that is, between terrestrial and aquatic areas, so they are biomes of great fauna and flora richness, as well as biomes well defined by physical phenomena such as wind and tides, which shape the coastal terrain. .

Open and deep sea biomes

They correspond to the aquatic biomes of oceanic waters par excellence, in which different ecosystems full of marine biodiversity constitute one of the most surprising biomes on the planet.

Oceanic islands

The numerous oceanic islands, spread over the different oceans of the world, have their own climatic conditions, which determine the growth and evolution of species of flora and fauna different from those that inhabit continental areas.

Tropical coral reefs

One of the biomes most threatened today by the consequences of Climate Change, tropical coral reefs are as striking as they are vulnerable. They require strict and urgent conservation measures for their biodiversity and habitat in order to continue to exist.

If you want to read more articles similar to Types of aquatic biomes , we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category .

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