Ferns are one of the first plants that appeared on our planet, so they have a long evolution to adapt to their environment and survive. For this reason, it is very interesting to learn about the reproduction of ferns, which can occur in various ways, by itself or with our intervention if, for example, we want to take a plant equal to a fern that we have at home, propagating it to plant it in more places.
In this AgroCorrn article we will talk about the reproduction of ferns and what steps to take to get new stronger and more beautiful plants for your home. So, if you want to discover how ferns reproduce , whether to study a summary on this botanical topic or to propagate your own plants, do not miss this information.
- How is the reproduction of ferns
- How to reproduce ferns by cuttings
- How to reproduce ferns by stolons
- How to reproduce ferns by spores
How is the reproduction of ferns
The first thing you should know to understand how ferns reproduce and how they are born is that these plants have various propagation and multiplication systems. Specifically, they can reproduce in three ways: spores, cuttings and stolons, although they can also reproduce in vitro.
Ferns are seedless plants , so we will talk about fern spores as the natural and main form of sexual reproduction of these plants with millions of years of existence. This begins when the spore sacks mature and open to spread them through the wind. Of all of them, only those that find a place with the necessary conditions will begin their growth stage. The first form of the plant in its almost embryonic state is called prothalo, which does not usually measure more than 1.5 cm in length. The reproduction of ferns , like that of club mosses and horsetails, begins with the production of male and female gametes that, once fertilized, give rise to the egg or zygote from which a new plant will be born.
In the same way, there are also ferns capable of reproducing through their underground stems . In them, small bumps are created that have a great resemblance to bulbs and that, once mature, fall to form another plant.
Finally, through asexual reproduction of ferns , the technique of division of the fern bush is also used . In this way we make sure that we will obtain the same plant and without too much risk. Of course, when dividing ferns, it is necessary to ensure that the divisions have excess roots so that the plant can root quickly in its new container.
To learn more about this interesting topic of botany and gardening, we recommend you to know these other articles about the Reproduction of plants , What is asexual reproduction, its types and examples and What are spores .
How to reproduce ferns by cuttings
Although the vast majority of ferns reproduce through spores, there are several types of ferns capable of reproducing through cuttings. To achieve this type of propagation from fern cuttings we are going to explain everything step by step to make it easier for you:
- We recommend that you do it at the end of summer, so wait until this time to do it or do the whole process and keep the plants inside your house with a temperature appropriate to that time to simulate it. Once this is clear, start preparing the cutting.
- The cutting must be separated from the rhizome with its own network of roots. Cut a section out of the cutting making sure it contains at least three root nodules. We recommend that you always take it near the fronds that protrude from the plant’s own rhizome.
- With the cutting ready, you should quickly move it to the place where you want to plant it, be it a pot or the ground. Cover it and do not compact the soil too much to promote drainage, since these plants need constant watering but not waterlogging.
- If necessary, you can use some type of fertilizer and / or specialized rooting agent to ensure optimal growth and development. Here you can learn How to make homemade organic fertilizers and How to make natural rooting agent .
How to reproduce ferns by stolons
This other method of propagation of the fern is usually used in specific species, particularly in those that have thin and elongated stolons with several terminal buds. These, when they come into contact with the soil, produce suckers that can then be separated and transplanted, thus obtaining the new plant .
Generally, this method is used in greenhouses that have optimal degrees of air conditioning, around 25 ºC, and that have specific containers with peat and mulch, in addition to correcting the pH of this substrate with other substances, such as hydroxide calcic. The important thing is that, using this method, ferns can be produced throughout the year.
How to reproduce ferns by spores
Finally, we explain how ferns reproduce with spores , a process that occurs by itself in nature worse than we can do at home, if what you want is to get new ferns from the one you already have at home:
- With great care, collect the yellow, orange or reddish dust (depending on the species) that is usually found on the underside of the fern leaves. It is recommended to collect it when the small capsule containing the spores has taken on a dark color. In nature, capsules open and spores fall, which are moved by wind and gravity to a new area and thrive on land.
- After collecting it you will need a container with soil. However, it is better to opt for a more mineral soil than is offered by the universal substrate. Similarly, the soil you use should be moist but not very compacted.
- Once you have spread the spores above the ground, water the container abundantly and cover it to prevent the spores from escaping due to the wind as the substrate dries. Make sure the container is always very moist by watering several times a day in small doses.
- Now you must be patient. It may take months before you can see first-hand that your fern breeding attempt has yielded the expected results.
- If you have gotten your first ferns, we advise you to place them in a place with a lot of shade, but that it receives a little sunlight, never directly. If we have a place where moss grows, that will be a good place to locate them.
If you want to read more articles similar to How ferns reproduce , we recommend that you enter our Biology category .
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