In nature, in addition to relating to our environment, the fact of interacting between organisms of both the same species and a different species is a common phenomenon and necessary for the survival of organisms. A multitude of different interactions are known, depending on how it occurs and who benefits and who loses, or if all participants obtain some benefit.
If you want to know more about it, in this article that we present to you from AgroCorrn we explain a specific example, what is forestry and examples . We encourage you to read it!
- What is phoresis
- Examples of phoresis
- Types of commensalism
- Difference between phoresis, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism
What is phoresis
First of all, what does phoresis mean? The term foresis comes from the Greek phórēsis and means “transport”, hence its definition. Foresis, also known as foresia , is a type of commensal relationship , that is, an association in which one species is benefited and the other is neither benefited nor harmed (+ / 0).
Thus, the definition of phoresis is the following: action in which an organism adheres or is attached to the outside of the body of another, with no consequence other than transport . In this way, the phoron or pheric organism is distinguished , a term used to designate the organism that is transported, and host , used to refer to the transporter organism. The organism that is transported does not exert any negative consequence on the life of the organism that carries it, although there are cases in which it feeds on the transporting organism and gives rise to a part of a parasitic relationship and another part of the pheric. This term arose in 1896, when it was observed how small arthropods use the largest ones to transport themselves from one place to another.
Examples of phoresis
There are numerous species that exert forestry , although the insect taxon is one of the best known groups with a large number and variety of organisms that use this relationship. Some examples of forestry are:
- EL ACARS Maorocheles muscaedomesticae unido a la Mosca Aspergillus Hyde.
- The wasp Trichogramma evanescens attached to the eye of the large cabbage butterfly, Pieris brassicae .
- Poecilochirus austroasiaticus mites attached to the flying fly, Calliphora vicina .
In the aquatic environment, we also find various examples of phoresis, especially the numerous sedentary protozoa, algae and fungi that adhere to the bodies of arthropods, turtles, etc.
Types of commensalism
Beyond forestry , there are other examples of commensalism :
- There are tenant relations , where one of the participating species lives on top of or within another species, yes, without causing any discomfort. This type of relationship is experienced by woodpeckers or squirrels, for example, that nest inside trees. The sea acorns that live on top of the mussel would also be another example. Here you can see more about what is tenantism and examples .
- There are relationships of metabiosis (also known as thanatocresis), where an organism takes advantage of the remains of another species to protect itself or to use them as tools, such as hermit crabs.
- There is also chemical commensalism , which is a very particular type of commensalism that usually occurs by interaction between two bacteria. This relationship consists of the fact that one of the bacteria metabolizes a chemical compound that is not useful for the other bacterium, but that the metabolic product of the reactions carried out by the first bacterium is usable for the other bacterium.
In this other post you can learn more about What is commensalism and examples .
Difference between phoresis, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism
The difference between phoresis, commensalism, mutualism and parasitism falls on who and how many of the participants in these relationships benefit and / or suffer.
- In a relationship of phoresis and commensalism, one of the participating species benefits and the other is not affected.
- The phoresis, unlike commensalism, none of the participants depends on this relationship to obtain food, since no physiological interaction or dependence intervenes in the phoresis.
- Regarding commensalism, on the other hand, the original meaning of this term referred to when animals fed on the remains of another’s food, such as scavengers who chase game species to eat the leftovers they leave behind. .
- In mutualism relationships, both species are benefited, obtaining both a benefit; This type of interaction is typical of organisms with compatible biological characteristics, for example, mycorrhizae: they consist of fungi that inhabit the roots of trees where there is an exchange of nutrients and organic matter in exchange for water.
- In parasitic relationships, one species benefits and another is harmed; An example of this type of interaction would be fleas, which inhabit the skin of animals obtaining a benefit but causing possible viruses in their host.
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