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Parts of a plant and their functions

We all know how to identify at a glance the different parts of most plants, such as the trunk of a tree or the root of any of them. However, do you know well what all the parts of plants are and what functions they fulfill?

It may seem like basic information, but whether you are starting to study it now or want to refresh or expand your knowledge about plants, we invite you to join us in this AgroCorrn article on the 5 parts of a plant and their functions with diagrams. You sure learn something!

You may also be interested in: Parts of a sheet and their functions

Summary of the parts of a plant

In summary, the important parts of plants are these five:

  • Stem
  • Estate
  • Sheets
  • Flower
  • Fruit

Next, we will explain each of these parts of the plants and their functions .


The stem is the aerial part of the plant that among its functions is to provide support and structure to it, supporting its other aerial plant organs, such as leaves and flowers. Another of its main characteristics is that it has negative geotropism, which means that it grows in the opposite direction to gravity. Although we have commented that it is the aerial part of the plant, the truth is that there are several types of stems and their functions :

Stem types

The stems can be classified in different ways, but the most common of them is to do it according to the environment in which they are found, which differentiates underground and aerial stems.

  • The underground stems are in turn subdivided into tubers, rhizomes and bulbs.
  • The aerial stems can be differentiated into erect, creeping, climbing and voluble, although there are special stems, such as those with thorns, stolons or tendrils.

Learn more about the Types of stems with this other post.

Stem functions

As we have said, one of the two main functions of the stem is to support the entire aerial part of the plant. The other is to transport the nutrients and substances through the interior of the plant. From the roots, the so-called raw sap rises to the leaves through the stem ducts, where it is enriched with carbon dioxide and gives rise to elaborated sap, the sustenance of the plant.

Here you can learn more about the Parts of a stem and their functions .


We can all recognize the roots of most plants: that branched part that is usually found underground and with which it feeds. Let’s go a little further:

What are roots and their types

Roots are the first organ that plants develop when they germinate, and arguably the most important. There are several types of roots, which can be classified in different ways:

Types of roots according to the anchor they provide to the plant:

  • Contractile roots
  • Stilts
  • Epiphytic roots

Types of roots according to their shape:

  • Axonomorphic roots
  • Fasciculated roots
  • Napiform roots
  • Branched roots
  • Tuberous roots

Types of roots according to the direction of growth:

  • Adventitious roots
  • Aquatic roots
  • Sucking roots
  • Aerial roots
  • Storage roots

Find out more about the Types of roots in this other post.

Root functions

  • As we have said, one of the main functions of the roots is to absorb water and nutrients through the small absorbent hairs they have, food that they then transmit to the rest of the plant through the stem.
  • The other function they fulfill is to anchor the entire plant structure to the environment, either with underground roots that grip deeply, or with aerial roots that anchor to other plants or surfaces.
  • Some roots have the ability to photosynthesize, or stick to other plants to absorb nutrients from them.

In this other post you can learn much more about Root Parts and their functions .


Leaves are one of the most recognizable parts of any plant, and despite their great diversity of shapes, sizes and even colors, they are present in almost all plants and, in addition, plant leaves have vital functions , like photosynthesis, among others.

What are leaves and their types

They are plant organs, usually very thin and green in color, that grow from the branches or stem of plants. They can be classified in many different ways: according to their petiole, their edge, their rib or even their shape. Its most elementary and basic classification, on the other hand, is based on whether the plant keeps the leaves all year round, and they are perennial, or if it loses them in the cold months, and they are deciduous. Learn more about the types of leaves here.

Leaf functions

  • The leaves mainly fulfill three great functions:
  • They carry out photosynthesis, and thus obtain chemical energy from the sun’s rays.
  • They allow the plant to breathe, exchanging gases at night.
  • They can perspire, letting excess water escape through them.

Learn more about the Parts of a sheet and their functions at this link.

Flower, one of the most showy parts of a plant

The flower, the most attractive part for people in the case of many plants, is responsible for the reproduction of the plant . That is why, many times, the flowers are so brightly colored: to attract pollinating insects. However, all plants reproduce by flowers.

Types of flowers

There is an immense diversity of types of flowers, of very different sizes, colors, shapes and aromas. To learn more about this topic, we recommend you read this other post on Types of flowers with images .

Parts of the flower

The flower has a calyx, corolla, stamens, filament, and pistils . In the stamens, the male sexual organ of the plant, pollen is found, which when carried to the pistils, the female sexual organ, give rise to the process of creating a new plant.

Expand your knowledge about flowers, these parts of plants and their functions that are so important, with this other AgroCorrn article on The parts of a flower and their functions .

Fruit or fruit

Not all plants have fruit, but those that reproduce by sexual reproduction by seeds tend to produce it. When the flower has been fertilized, it produces a seed and this forms the fruit around it. Learn more about Plant reproduction in this other article.

Types of fruit or fruit

As with leaves and flowers, there is a huge variety of fruits or fruits of vegetables . Any fruit you usually eat is the fruit of a plant or a tree, but so are the fruits that we eat as nuts. For you to learn more about the types of fruit or fruit and discover some strange ones, we recommend this other post about 30 rare tropical fruits .

Functions of plant fruits

The function of the fruit tends to be to protect the seed and at the same time facilitate its dispersal through animal activity, which will consume the fruits and deposit the seeds in other places, thus favoring the propagation of the species. If you want to learn more about it, in this other article we talk about the Parts of the fruit and their functions .

Maria Anderson

Hello, I am a blogger specialized in environmental, health and scientific dissemination issues in general. The best way to define myself as a blogger is by reading my texts, so I encourage you to do so. Above all, if you are interested in staying up to date and reflecting on these issues, both on a practical and informative level.

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