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Difference between haploid and diploid cell

In the nucleus of eukaryotic cells is the genetic material that contains all the information of the organism and this is very compactly packed in structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes are shaped like the letter “X” and are made up of chromatin and proteins through which DNA is wound. Depending on the number of chromosomes present in an organism, we speak of the term ploidy, which refers to the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell. A diploid cell has one pair of these sets of chromosomes, the haploid cell with one, and organisms in which there are more than two homologous chromosomes are called polyploids.

If you want to learn about the difference between a haploid cell and a diploid , keep paying attention to this AgroCorrn article in which we delve into what is a haploid cell and what is a diploid, their main similarities and differences and the role they play in cell reproduction.

What is a haploid cell

haploid cell is one that has a single copy of each type of chromosome in its nucleus , that is, there are no homologous chromosomes in this type of cell. Haploid cells are the result of a meiotic cell division and, in turn, by presenting a copy of the genetic material, they can only perform mitosis to reproduce.

For example, in humans the number of chromosomes is 23 pairs, where 22 are diploid somatic cells and the remainder is the haploid sex chromosome. In addition to human sex cells, there are haploid life forms that reproduce asexually, such as some algae, fungi, wasps, ants, or male bees (drones). In the case of the latter, when speaking of haploidy , what happens is that the eggs from which they originate are not fertilized, so the number of chromosomes in their cells is half that of the queens. or workers, that is, they have 16 chromosomes that come entirely from the mother.

What is a diploid cell

The product of the fusion of two haploid cells from two parents gives rise to a diplode cell , therefore, it has two copies of each type of chromosome . In the human body, most of the cells that give rise to the tissues of the organs are diploid, such as cells of the intestine or neurons. If you were wondering if a neuron is haploid or diploid, now you know that it is of the second type mentioned.

In fact, most animals and some plants are diploid organisms . Some examples of diploid cells in animals and plants are from mosquitoes ( Culex pipiens ) that have 3 pairs of chromosomes, the potato ( Solanum tuberosum) that has 31, to the carp ( Cyprinus carpio) with 51 pairs of chromosomes in their cells. Although there are many plants whose life cycle is marked by presenting the two types of cells: haploid and diploid, where haploid spores originate from a diploid body that suffers meiosis, which in turn will divide by mitosis and give rise to haploid organisms multicellular. From the latter, male and female haploid cells will emerge that will fuse, giving rise to the diploid body of the beginning.

Main differences between haploid and diploid cells

What is the difference between a haploid and a diploid cell? In summary, these are the main differences between haploid and diploid cells :

  • The haploid cell has only one copy of the chromosomes and the diploid cell has two copies.
  • With the exception of human sex cells, most animal cells are diploid. Only some algae or fungi are haploid for most of their life cycle.
  • A haploid cell is the result of the mitosis of another haploid cell or the meiosis of a diploid.
  • A diploid cell is the result of the fusion of two haploid cells.

Main similarities between haploid and diploid cells

Instead, these are the main similarities between haploid and diploid cells :

  • Both are cells present in eukaryotic organisms.
  • They originate through the process of cell division.
  • In the nucleus of these cells is the genetic material in the form of chromosomes.

Cell reproduction: mitosis and meiosis

The cell cycle of eukaryotic cells is divided into two main phases that are the interface, where the cell prepares for cell division, and cell division itself. The types of sexual cell division are meiosis , which is the process of cell division where one diploid cell separates and gives rise to four haploid cells. Each of these daughter cells contains a copy of each chromosome of the parent. On the other hand, mitosis is the process that results in two daughter cells identical to the mother. For this to be possible, the cell has had to previously replicate its genetic material so that the daughter cells receive an exact copy of it.

Although the cell cycle of eukaryotes can vary depending on whether we are talking about a unicellular organism, a plant or a fungus, there is a certain pattern that remains common, where at the beginning of the cycle two haploid cells, with different genetic information in each one, are they fuse and give rise to a diploid cell with a mixture of genetic material from the two parents. On the other hand, it is common for mitosis to occur at some point in the cell cycle, giving rise to haploid cells again and, finally, the successive mitosis that originate in the organism from its haploid or diploid cells give rise to the development of multicellular organisms. .

In this other AgroCorrn article we will tell you more about the Difference between mitosis and meiosis . In addition, to learn more about cells, we advise you to read our other articles on the Parts of an animal cell and the Parts of a plant cell .

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