The mixed forest is a type of forest, as its name suggests, so it is a plant formations in which trees predominate over other types of plants. In the specific case of the mixed tree, the predominant types of trees are both gymnosperms and angiosperms, which is why large broad-leaved, bushy and deciduous trees are combined with evergreen conifers. Regarding the animals found in this biome, we can indicate the wolves, some bears and felines, among many others.
If you want to learn more about the mixed forest, its characteristics and its flora and fauna , join us in this interesting AgroCorrn article.
Mixed forest characteristics: types and climate
As we have just defined, among the main characteristics of the mixed forest it stands out that there are both deciduous and evergreen trees. In addition, it has a canopy, that is, an upper layer that reaches heights of between 25 and 45 meters, although in some areas there are mixed forests of less or greater height.
Different types of mixed forest can be differentiated according to the location in which they are found. They are as follows:
- Transitional with the taiga: these are found in the northern United States, Canada and Europe. In these areas, mixed forest transitions between temperate deciduous forests to the south and taiga to the north. In Asia it also acts as a transition between the monsoon forest and the taiga, and presents different characteristics and greater complexity, such as the presence of lianas. In this other article we will talk about what is the taiga and its characteristics .
- Mixed temperate rainforest: These formations can be found in southern New Zealand and some parts of eastern Japan and China, as well as southern Chile and the northwestern Pacific coast of North America. They show very high levels of humidity, with rainfall that reaches over 8,500 mm per year.
- Mediterranean mixed forest: located in the Mediterranean area of Europe and in the Middle East, these forests have adapted to the sometimes prolonged droughts of this climate in the warm months. Learn more about this and the Mediterranean climate itself in this other post about the Mediterranean Forest: characteristics, flora and fauna .
- Mixed transition forest with Central American pines: they are located in Central America and Mexico, where the evergreen broadleaf forest meets the Central American conifers.
- Transitional with Araucarias and Podocarpáceas: these can be found in Argentina and Chile, as well as in small extensions of New Zealand.
Mixed forest climate
We can find 3 main climates in this type of forest:
- Mediterranean climate : here we find dry summers, with little rainfall and hot, and mild and humid winters. The average temperature is around 20ºC and the transitional seasons tend to be warm or temperate.
- Oceanic climate: these are climates that are temperate due to the proximity of large masses of ocean or sea water. They are characterized by high humidity, an attenuated temperature variation between day and night and average temperatures of between 0ºC and 22ºC.
- Humid continental climate: of the three climates, this is the one that reaches the lowest average temperatures, which can reach -10 ºC. It is a climate with rainfall throughout the season, in the form of rain in the warm months and snow in the cold months.
Mixed forest flora
Given the great difference in the areas in which we can find these forests, the diversity of plants in the mixed forest is also very great. Therefore, it is necessary to differentiate according to the main locations.
With regard to gymnosperm plants , in the northern hemisphere we find, above all, members of the Pinaceae and Cupressaceae families. In Japan we see members of the Podocarpaceae and in California we cannot ignore the famous Sequoia sempervirens and Douglas fir. In the Mediterranean areas there are Pinus sylvestris, Juniperus thruifera and Pinus nigra. In the southern hemisphere the Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae predominate. Here you can discover more about Araucarias or coniferous trees: types, names and characteristics . In addition, to learn more about Gymnosperm Plants: what they are, characteristics and examples , we invite you to read this other post.
Among angiosperm plants the diversity is even greater, which is why we mention some species according to their location.
Northern and central Europe and North America
- Quercus robur
- Fagus sylvatica
- Betula spp.
- Carpinus betulus
- Quercus pyrenaica
- Quercus suber
- Pistacia lentiscus
- Arbutus unedo
Mixed forest flora in Asia
- Quercus acutissima
- Quercus dentata
- Liquidambar formosana
- Pistacia chinensis
- Castanea japonica
- Albizia macrophylla
Mixed forest plants in Oceania
- Atherosperma moschatum
- Acacia melanoxylon
Expand your knowledge about these mixed forest plants by clicking on the link to this other AgroCorrn article on Angiosperm Plants: what they are, characteristics and examples .
Mixed forest fauna
Again, given the great diversity of areas in which these forests are located, it is necessary to distinguish according to them to be able to talk about the animals of the mixed forest . Even so, we can say that, in general, these forests are home to wolves (canis lupus) and different species of cats and bears.
- Black bears
- Canadian lynx
- Patagonian skunks
- Black-necked swans
Mixed forest fauna in Europe
Mixed forest animals in Asia
It should be noted that some subspecies of Asian tigers and bears are disappearing from these biomes.
- Barbary Leopard
- Barbary Macaque
- Barbary Deer
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