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Main environmental problems in Spain

Spain is the driest country in Europe, with a weak vegetation cover compared to other places on this continent, a very uneven volume of rainfall (both in the distribution of space and time) and with little surface water. In addition to these natural factors, there is human action, which can further damage this scenario. In this AgroCorrn article we will talk about the main environmental problems in Spain . As an example of an environmental problem in Spain, in the main image we can see Madrid on a day with a high level of pollution.

You may also be interested in: Environmental problems and solutions
  1. Air pollution in Spain
  2. Water resources and water quality are reduced in Spain
  3. In Spain there is loss of vegetation cover, erosion and desertification
  4. Urban and industrial waste, another major environmental problem in Spain
  5. Natural risks as part of environmental problems in Spain

Air pollution in Spain

This is one of the main environmental problems in Spain and it occurs as a consequence of different human activities and natural factors. The air pollution is common in urban centers, power plants and industrial areas. Furthermore, there are factors that favor the concentration of atmospheric pollutants , such as atmospheric stability (for example anticyclones) or depressed areas.

Thermal power plants, for example, emit large amounts of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and CO2. It is estimated that CO2 emissions have increased by 50% in the period between 1990 and 2006, reaching that year 433 million tons (approximately 10 tons per inhabitant per year). These gases are also responsible for the greenhouse effect and global warming.

Water resources and water quality are reduced in Spain

In this country the distribution of water resources is irregular , both in space and time. The reservoir capacity in Spain is approximately 54,000 hm 3 and the annual water demands are divided into urban, industrial and agricultural. In addition to this, groundwater is also used. However, the overexploitation of aquifers has as a consequence problems such as the reduction of surface emissions that feed river courses and wetlands and the salinization of coastal areas. Therefore, it seeks to reduce consumption and increase the surface area in reservoirs.

The population and the industry generate water or hydric pollution due to discharges, which spread rapidly through the water. Some of these pollutants are biological metabolites, discharges, pollutants from agriculture or industrial pollutants. The coastal area is especially vulnerable to water pollution.

In Spain there is loss of vegetation cover, erosion and desertification

In this European country there is a large plant area that is being lost due to factors such as deforestation to obtain agricultural land and pastures, construction of roads and infrastructure, overgrazing, logging for wood or forest fires . You can delve into the topic of deforestation in this country by reading this other AgroCorrn article on Causes of deforestation in Spain .

Desertification refers to the progressive transformation of a territory towards the desert ecosystem and can be due to natural factors such as low rainfall and drought or due to human factors, including the destruction of the vegetation cover. In addition, the loss of the vegetation cover leaves the territory more exposed to the factors that produce erosion such as water.

In Spain, the Mediterranean coast, part of the interior and the Canary Islands are territories that present a high risk of desertification, due to intensive agriculture, fires, burning of remains, cutting down of vegetation or land abandonment.

Urban and industrial waste, another major environmental problem in Spain

Industrial and human activities generate a large amount of waste or waste that is not assimilated within natural cycles or is so at a slower rate when deposited. For this reason, these residues must be treated and, if possible, eliminated. It is estimated that in 2007 waste reached almost 25 million tons of waste in Spain , which would be equivalent to approximately 525 kg per inhabitant per year.

Waste can be divided into inert, organic, toxic, and hazardous. Each year around 1.8 million tons of these toxic and dangerous wastes are produced in this country. The management of this waste includes its incineration, physical treatment with chemicals, storage or reuse.

Natural risks as part of environmental problems in Spain

Another environmental problem in Spain is one that can be generated as a consequence of natural processes. These risks are more difficult to anticipate, as they are beyond human control. These include geological and climatic risks :

  • Geological hazards: these include earthquakes , volcanic eruptions or subsidence. This country is between the Eurasian and African plates, which generate more earthquake risks in the south and southeast of the peninsula. The volcanic area is found mainly in the Canary archipelago, but it does not present a high risk. Subsidence is more at risk in areas with calcareous soils.
  • Climatic risks: these include hailstorms , wind storms, cold waves or persistent rains, especially in the north and northwest of the peninsula, or heat waves or the cold drop in the south and east of the peninsula.


If you want to read more articles similar to Main environmental problems in Spain , we recommend that you enter our category of Other environment .

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Hello, I am a blogger specialized in environmental, health and scientific dissemination issues in general. The best way to define myself as a blogger is by reading my texts, so I encourage you to do so. Above all, if you are interested in staying up to date and reflecting on these issues, both on a practical and informative level.

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