Did you know that chickens represent 91% of the world’s poultry population and that they contribute 89% to the world’s poultry meat production? Other species of birds that are also part of this group of animals that humans use for their consumption are ducks (5%), turkeys (2%) and geese and painted hens (remaining 2%). These and other data reveal the importance of poultry in the omnivorous diet followed by most of the world’s population. But, specifically, what are poultry or farm birds ? What types and species of birds can we find among them? How does the rearing of poultry according to an ecological and sustainable method differ from the methods traditional industrial?
Continue reading this AgroCorrn article to discover this and more information about poultry, their types and examples with photos .
- What are poultry and their characteristics
- Types of poultry
- Examples of poultry
- Organic poultry farming
What are poultry and their characteristics
All those species of birds that humans have domesticated throughout history, for the use and consumption of their eggs, meat and / or feathers, belong to the group called “poultry or farm birds “. Being an ancestral technique that allows the use of different species of birds, today, it is easy to find farms and pens around the world dedicated to the breeding and use of poultry.
The main characteristics of poultry or farm birds are:
- They all belong to the order of the Galliformes (within the taxonomic classification that allows them to be grouped according to their evolutionary biological history), in which they include about 250 species .
- Poultry are distributed throughout the planet, since they have been domesticated by humans and, in addition, they have great adaptability for the colonization of different types of ecosystems.
- They are medium or large in size, with a robust bearing and legs adapted to running, as well as to the action of digging in the ground, thanks to the presence of strong nails (in certain species).
- They feed preferentially on grain.
- Most of these species are flightless birds. You can know a variety of these and other non-domestic in this other post in which we show 10 birds that do not fly .
Let’s see in the following sections the different types of poultry that exist and some examples of common and scientific names to know them better.
Types of poultry
Unquestionably, chickens and hens are the best known poultry worldwide, due to the great demand they present within the poultry production system. However, the term “poultry or farm birds” includes many other species and breeds, both from native birds from different regions of the planet to those others that have been created by humans (through crosses between individuals of the same or different species), to achieve the breeding and subsequent commercialization of domesticated breeds.
In addition, on numerous occasions, those species of birds that have also been domesticated but with the simple purpose of serving as ornamentation in parks and gardens or as pets are included within poultry. This is the case of peacocks ( Pavo cristatus ), pigeons ( Columba livia ), canaries (genus Serinus) and swans (genus Cygnus), as well as birds of the Psittacidae family to which macaws belong , parrots , parrots, parakeets and lovebirds .
In the next section we will focus exclusively on poultry themselves, that is, those that have been domesticated for the consumption of their eggs or meats.
Examples of poultry
The most representative poultry species , those that we can find in farms and homes around the world, are:
Domestic turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo f. Domestica )
Famous for its use at Thanksgiving dinners that Americans celebrate each year, domestic turkey farming is very common in North America. The European and Asian continents follow in the domestication of turkeys for their meat consumption.
Roosters and hens ( Gallus gallus domesticus )
Native to Southeast Asia, those commonly known as roosters (males), hens (females), and chickens (young), belong to the domestic species Gallus gallus domesticus. Among the various breeds of this species, intended for meat consumption, the Prat, Barnevelder and Ancona breeds stand out, as well as the Andalusian Blue and Andalusian Southern breeds.
On the other hand, regarding the hens used as egg-laying birds, it should be noted that 92% of the world’s egg production is carried out by them. There is a huge variety of egg-laying hen breeds, among which are: Orpington, Australop, painted or Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) and the black Castilian hen.
Besides, there are also breeds that are raised as pets, being one of the family, although also to compete in events and contests for the best specimen.
Asia is the continent where we can find the greatest number and diversity of domesticated ducks, used as poultry, both for consumption and as pets. The most abundant species are: mallards ( Anas platyrhyncos ), Creole ducks ( Carina moscata domestica ).
They are common in poultry productions in Africa, both in small rearing and production systems, as well as in those on a large scale, highlighting the common geese or common geese ( Anser anser ) as the most abundant species.
Other species of birds that we can find in the different poultry production systems around the world are: common quail ( Coturnix coturnix ), ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) and common pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus ).
Organic poultry farming
Faced with the industrialized breeding of poultry, the ecological and sustainable method involves numerous changes and techniques that take care of both animal welfare throughout its breeding and development process, as well as the maintenance of adequate food and establishments. Some of the specific measures that are carried out during organic poultry farming are:
- Reduced transport times to avoid stress for the animals and ensure their well-being.
- In the case of organic poultry farming to sell their eggs, meat and feathers (that is, not only for self-consumption or to keep them as pets), the animals and their corresponding products are always correctly identified throughout the production process (preparation, slaughter, cutting, transportation and marketing).
- The use of allopathic tranquilizers (typical of modern or western medicine) are prohibited before and during the transport of animals.
- Synthetic amino acids and other chemical compounds that stimulate the “artificial” growth of animals and the acceleration of egg production, as well as subjecting them to force feeding, are also strictly prohibited .
- The environment must always be spacious, clean, bright and everything that involves welfare for the animal . There must be large outdoor and indoor areas, which they can enter whenever they want to take refuge (to sleep, protect themselves from extreme temperatures, etc.). The so-called organic chickens or other poultry raised in this way must be able to enjoy a natural environment , as close as possible to their natural habitat.
In this other AgroCorrn article we give you several Tips for keeping chickens in the garden .
If you want to read more articles similar to Poultry: types and examples , we recommend that you enter our category of Pets .
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