The first vascular plants or tracheophytes appeared on earth more than 400 million years ago, between the Silurian and Devonian periods. These represent a large number of species, almost more than 350,000, and are also among those with the most varied appearance. Tracheophyte plants, also known as cormophytes , are plants that have managed to adapt to the different habitats of our planet thanks to a slow process of evolution that has endowed them with special and completely representative characteristics. Furthermore, tracheophytes are of vital importance to human life due to their many industrial uses and their valuable energy value. In fact, they are also used in medicine or as ornamental plants.
Although the group is large, at AgroCorrn, we want you to learn a little more about them in a useful and simple way thanks to this short and interesting article. The idea is to get to know even better the plants that are usually closer to us, such as those in our home or nearby parks. It is never a bad time to learn a little more about the basics of basic botany so… Would you like to take a look? So, read on and know what tracheophytes are, their classification, their characteristics and examples .
- What are tracheophytes
- Classification of tracheophytes
- Characteristics of tracheophytes
- Examples of tracheophyte plants
What are tracheophytes
The tracheophytes, vascular plants or Cormophyta are those with specific tissues Vegetative for driving minerals, water and other nutrients necessary for the survival and development of the same. That is, vascular plants or tracheophytes are those that have xylem and phloem .
Classification of tracheophytes
The evolution of tracheophytes has generated several taxonomic categories. In fact, there are multiple classifications of these depending on the author, since a true consensus on the matter has not yet been reached. The number of these is so large, more than three hundred thousand species, that to simplify it a bit we have chosen to carry out the following division:
- Psilopsid: those most primitive tracheophytic plants. Currently there are only 3 species within this category.
- Lycopsida: this group is made up of more than 1000 species, very old that proceed almost completely to the division of the Lycophytas. Here you can learn more about Clubs: what they are, characteristics and examples .
- Sphenopsida: formed by horsetails, plants with a strong rhizome that were born thousands of years ago and that manage to reach a maximum of two meters in height and with medicinal properties.
- Pterópsida: they are the widest group of all the vegetal kingdom. This is divided into three main branches.
Pteropsid trachophyte plants
- Filicinea: plants with more developed leaves than the stem and that do not have knots or between knots. More than ten thousand species belong to this group, where there are mainly several species of ferns and other leafy species typical of tropical climates.
- Gymnosperms: commonly known as conifers are plants that have flowers, but not fruit. This false fruit is a method achieved through evolution to protect the seed until it can produce a new plant. Here we will find trees and shrubs such as juniper, cypress or pine. In this other article you can discover more about Gymnosperm Plants: what they are, characteristics and examples .
- Angiosperms: also known as flowering plants that are characterized by clearly differentiated tissues and organs. Within this group we will find herbaceous, shrubby and arboreal plants. Another characteristic feature is how the tracheophyte plants that are part of this group reproduce. The reproduction of the tracheophytes of this group occurs thanks to the flower, which has a male and female part, the fertilization of the ovule is achieved, which will result from its union with the seed. These are divided in turn into dicots, with two cotyledons that grow on both sides of the embryo and monocots that have a single embryonic leaf. In this link you will see more about theAngiosperm plants: what are they, characteristics and examples .
Characteristics of tracheophytes
These are the main characteristics of tracheophytes :
- The main characteristic of tracheophyte plants is that they have vascular tissue. Thanks to this, the plant is able to transport water and mineral salts through xylem and phloem to obtain and produce its own food; basic for its development and growth.
- In the same way, they are characterized by having a more complex structure than those belonging to other less evolved groups of plants. In fact, its morphology is much more uniform, always presenting in a visible and orderly way a root system, stem and leaves.
- Thanks to their structure and morphology, these plants can reach a higher height and get a better bearing than the rest. These range from the simplest herbaceous to tall trees.
- Plants belonging to the group of tracheophytes also have leaves of two types: microfiles, macrophiles and megaphiles. These go from least to greatest degree of evolution.
- Tracheophytes have managed to adapt to the different geographical areas of the planet. From aquatic to terrestrial habitats.
Examples of tracheophyte plants
Here are some examples of tracheophyte plant species :
- Equisetum arvense the Horsetail
- Asparagus setaceus or Feathery Fern
- Chamaerops humilis or Palmito
- Phoenix canariensis or Palmera canaria
- Ceiba speciosa o Palo Borracho
- Ceratonia siliqua o Algarrobo
- Fraxinus excelsior o Fresno
- Pinus pinea or Stone pine
- Cupressus sempervirens or Cypress
- Cycas revoluta o Cyca
- Ginkgo biloba o Ginkgo
- Ficus carica the Higuera
- Galdiolus sp. oh gladioli
- Tulipa agenensis or Wild Tulip
- Persea americana or Avocado
- Nicotiana tabacum o Tabaco
- Toxicodendron radicans or Poison ivy
- Musa paradisiaca or Banana
- Citrullus lanatus o Sandía
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