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Types of forests and their characteristics

The jungle, also known by the names of tropical rainforest or jungle, is home to the main biomass of the entire Earth, with the flora and fauna of the jungle being the ones that present the greatest range of variety in species. In addition, it is structured in several levels of height.

If you want to discover the different types of forests that exist, do not miss this AgroCorrn article in which we explain in detail what forests are and each of the types that exist according to different classifications.

You may also be interested in: Ecosystem of the jungle and its characteristics
Index
  1. What is the jungle and its general characteristics
  2. Types of jungle according to altitude
  3. Types of jungle according to humidity
  4. Types of jungle according to latitude
  5. Names of jungles of the world

What is the jungle and its general characteristics

The jungle is a bioclimatic landscape that presents a lot of rainfall, abundant vegetation and a warm climate, with an organization established at different levels of altitude. But what are the jungles like? Among its general characteristics are:

  • Its location occurs in different latitudes, abundant in the areas of the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn .
  • These occupy 6% of the entire surface of the planet.
  • They have abundant rainfall , with a rainfall between 1,500 and 2,000 mm, so necessary to sustain the large amount of existing plant mass. In addition, humidity favors the decomposition of organic matter present in the soil. If we get closer to the equator, up to 3,000 mm per year can occur.
  • They present an abundant hydrography thanks to the constant rains.
  • The temperature of the jungle located in the tropical fringe, ranges between 27 ºC and 29 ºC , however, if we go above 400 meters in height or at subtropical latitudes it decreases to 22 ºC. Also if we find mountain forests or also called altitude, it can drop a little more to 17ºC.
  • The vegetation of the jungle and the animals of the jungle represent two thirds of the total biodiversity existing on the planet, taking into account that there are still many species to be identified and discovered. Here you can learn more about what animals live in the rainforest .
  • They are great generators of oxygen , in addition to functioning as important ecological refuges, also for communities of human beings.
  • Rainforests have a 4-layer structure: soil, understory, canopy, and emergent.
  • It is seriously threatened by the logging industry, illegal mining and intensive agriculture and livestock.

We encourage you to read these other AgroCorrn articles about the jungle ecosystem and its characteristics and about the flora and fauna of the tropical jungle . Regarding the different types of forests, these are classified according to their altitude, humidity and latitude and, below, we are going to see each of these types of classification.

Types of jungle according to altitude

These are the different types of forests according to the altitude at which they are:

  • Basal or plain jungle: this is located between 0 and 1000 meters above sea level, so it is usually flooded, becoming swampy or restingas territories as happens in the alluvial jungle.
  • Mountain jungle: it can also receive the name of cloudy forest, and they are located at an altitude that ranges between 1,000 and 2,200 meters above sea level, it has very abundant biodiversity and moisture condensation occurs in them. There are also mountainous forests in the subtropical region, although they are found at a lower altitude, between 500 and 1,300 meters above sea level.
  • Gallery jungle: they are typical of the intertropical areas, surrounding humid areas such as lagoons and rivers of the plains of the Sabana. Here we tell you more about the Forest or gallery jungle: what it is, flora and fauna .

Types of jungle according to humidity

Jungles can also be classified according to the humidity they have:

  • Superhumid jungle: in tropical forests there is a precipitation band of about 2,000 mm per year and 4,000 mm. It usually has rainy climates that make the foliage always green, although there may be periods of drought in which part of the foliage is lost, approximately 25%, which ends up recovering quickly.
  • Humid jungle: in the dry season the foliage that is lost is in the range between 25% and 50%, so the loss is partial. Rainfall for the subtropical forest ranges between 1,000 and 2,000 mm per year and in the tropical forest between 2,000 and 3,000 mm per year.
  • Sub-humid forest: also called dry forest in which there are both dry and humid periods, during which all the foliage is lost. In this area the diversity is lower, with the same arboreal species prevailing.

Types of jungle according to latitude

If we classify them according to their latitude, the different types of jungle are:

  • Equatorial jungle: presents an average of 35 ºC, with impressive biological characteristics. The Amazon or the Congo jungle are equatorial jungles.
  • Tropical jungle: with temperatures higher than 24ºC, as an annual average. Besides being warm, its climate is humid thanks to the trade winds coming from the north and south that converge.
  • Subtropical jungle: in these jungles there are annual average temperatures between 18 and 24 º C. With rather cold winters, and warm summers.
  • Temperate jungle: or also called laurifolio forest, it presents abundant humidity and cold climates.
  • Subpolar jungle: also called subpolar rain forest or Magellanic forest, this jungle is located in glacial lakes and fjord shores, they present great biodiversity and evergreen vegetation.

Names of jungles of the world

Among the most lush and important forests in the world are the Congo Forest , located in Africa with approximately 700,000 km2, and the Amazon Forest , located in the heart of South America with an approximate extension of 5,500,000 km2. Other names of important forests are:

  • Selva de Harapan en Indonesia.
  • Rainforests of Hawaii in the United States.
  • Yanoda Jungle in China.
  • Daintree rainforest in Australia.

We recommend you read this other post about What is the importance of jungles and forests .

If you want to read more articles similar to Types of forests and their characteristics , we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category .

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