When asked what ecosystems are, we know that when we talk about this concept we are referring to a biological system made up of a specific community of beings, as well as the natural environment in which they live. In the world there are a great variety of ecosystems that provide great biological wealth, and it is precisely thanks to this variety that we can find unique species that are only present in certain parts of the planet.
But how exactly does ecosystem diversity impact? Why is it essential? Next, from AgroCorrn we share with you everything you need to know about the diversity of ecosystems: what it is, examples and other information of interest to better understand this concept. Keep reading!
- What is the diversity of ecosystems
- Ecosystem diversity and biodiversity
- Examples of ecosystem diversity
- Types of ecosystems
What is the diversity of ecosystems
When we talk about the diversity of ecosystems , we are referring to the wide variety of different ecosystems that develop on Earth. In other words, we are talking about the specific environment in which a group of species evolves and develops.
It should be taken into account that in each ecosystem there are certain abiotic or physical-chemical factors that determine which species can live in them, so it is essential to know them well and protect them.
Find out more about How an ecosystem works in this other article.
Ecosystem diversity and biodiversity
What is the importance of biodiversity ? How is this related to the variety of ecosystems? As we have already advanced, the diversity of ecosystems refers to the large number of different ecosystems that exist, while when we speak of biodiversity or biological diversity we refer to the variety of species that exist, that is, to the diversity of species .
The fact that there is a great variety of ecosystems means that there is also a great biodiversity. Depending on the type of ecosystem (aquatic, terrestrial, mixed or artificial) that we are talking about, the species that will be found in it will be those that can live and develop under the abiotic or physical-chemical factors that condition it.
Examples of ecosystem diversity
Next, we will talk about some examples of the diversity of ecosystems that exist in places like Spain, Mexico or Peru. Take note!
Ecosystem diversity in Spain
Spain is the European country with the greatest wealth in biological diversity , in ecosystems and terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Among the terrestrial ecosystems to be highlighted we find the Atlantic Forest, Mediterranean Forest, Desert, Laurisilva, Steppe and High mountains. On the other hand, among the aquatic ecosystems that we find, we can highlight rivers, lakes, wetlands and marine areas. We talk about them in more detail:
- Mediterranean forest : present throughout Spain except in the Canary Islands and in the north of the country. It is characterized by a climate with mild winters and summers with high temperatures, as well as by rainfall in spring and autumn. The most representative vegetation of the Mediterranean forest is the mastic, rosemary, thyme or rockrose, while its fauna include deer, wild boar, foxes, fallow deer, rabbits and hares.
- Wetlands : these are the areas where the soil is saturated with water. They can be freshwater or saltwater, and in them there are both terrestrial and aquatic animals: storks, frogs, herons, cranes, flamingos or carp. Regarding the flora, we find cypresses, ferns, ash trees, poplars or poplars.
Discover here the main aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems of Spain .
Ecosystem diversity in Mexico
Mexico has a great diversity of ecosystems thanks to its geographical location and relief. Its ecosystems range from the depths of the seas to the top of the mountains, and among them we find: cloud forests, temperate forests, scrublands, grasslands, wet and dry forests, coastal dunes, mangroves, sandy and rocky beaches, islands, reefs, macroalgae forests and seagrass beds.
If we talk about Mexico, it is worth mentioning the mangroves , a formation of one or several species of mangroves (trees that are very tolerant to the water conditions in the area). In Mexico there are four predominant species: Avicennia germinans, Conocarpus erectus, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa . Mangroves are dense formations from 1 to 30 meters high that offer a large number of ecosystem services , since they serve as areas of refuge, food, recreational use, hurricane barrier or flood control.
For more information on the main ecosystems of Mexico and their characteristics , take a look at this AgroCorrn article .
Ecosystem diversity in Peru
Peru has 39 ecosystems that belong to the tropical forest, the Yunga region and the Andean region, although the coastal and aquatic ecosystems also deserve mention. Some of them are the non-floodable terrace forest, the paramo, the pacal, the seasonally dry plain forest, the mangroves, the rivers, lagoons and lakes, among others. In this article we will discuss the wasteland in more detail.
Speaking of Peru, we want to highlight the role of the páramo , an intertropical mountainous ecosystem with great biological richness that ranges from 2,700 meters above sea level to approximately 5,000 meters. The páramo, characterized by its great valleys, has a fauna and flora full of species capable of protecting themselves from the characteristic wind of the place and maintaining a stable and optimal temperature. Among its vegetation we find the frailejón, the tiller, the bamboos or the cardón, and among its fauna there are species such as the jaguar, the fox, the condor, the blackbird and a great variety of species of butterflies, among others. We will talk to you in more detail about what are the ecosystems of Peru here .
Types of ecosystems
Once we have talked about some of the most relevant ecosystems on the planet, as well as the importance of genetic diversity , we can move on to the types of ecosystems we find around us. Ecosystems can be both natural and artificial , and within the first we find three large groups: aquatic, terrestrial and mixed ecosystems.
- Aquatic ecosystems and their types : in this first category we can distinguish between marine ecosystems (oceans, seas, reefs, coastal shallow waters and coastal saltwater lagoons) and freshwater ecosystems (lakes, rivers, ponds, streams, springs). Within aquatic ecosystems, there are people who distinguish an even more specific classification between lotic ecosystems (the movement of water is in one direction only) and lentic ecosystems (totally or partially stagnant waters).
- Terrestrial ecosystems and their types : here we find deserts, savannas, jungles, temperate forests and tundras and other areas of crops.
- Mixed ecosystems : these can be constituted by land of water and land or by land of air and land. The main ones to distinguish are wetlands, marshes, mangroves and coasts.
- Artificial ecosystems : when we speak of artificial ecosystems we are referring to those spaces modified by humans. We find agricultural, dam and urban ecosystems.
Discover more extensive information about the different types of ecosystems in this article.
If you want to read more articles similar to Diversity of ecosystems: what it is and examples , we recommend that you enter our Ecosystems category .
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